UPSC IAS Interview 2017-18

What is Simla Agreement?

July 02, 1972

The Simla Agreement signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan on 2nd July 1972 was much more than a peace treaty seeking to reverse the consequences of the 1971 war (i.e. to bring about withdrawals of troops and an exchange of PoWs). It was a comprehensive blue print for good neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan. Under the Simla Agreement both countries undertook to abjure conflict and confrontation which had marred relations in the past, and to work towards the establishment of durable peace, friendship and cooperation. 

The Simla Agreement contains a set of guiding principles, mutually agreed to by India and Pakistan, which both sides would adhere to while managing relations with each other. These emphasize: respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty; non-interference in each other’s internal affairs; respect for each others unity, political independence; sovereign equality; and abjuring hostile propaganda. The following principles of the Agreement are, however, particularly noteworthy:
  • A mutual commitment to the peaceful resolution of all issues through direct bilateral approaches.
  • To build the foundations of a cooperative relationship with special focus on people to people contacts.
  • To uphold the inviolability of the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir, which is a most important CBM between India and Pakistan, and a key to durable peace.
India has faithfully observed the Simla Agreement in the conduct of its relations with Pakistan.


Agreement on Bilateral Relations Between The Government of India and The Government of Pakistan
  • The Government of India and the Government of Pakistan are resolved that the two countries put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotion of a friendly and harmonious relationship and the establishment of durable peace in the sub-continent, so that both countries may henceforth devote their resources and energies to the pressing talk of advancing the welfare of their peoples.

    In order to achieve this objective, the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan have agreed as follows:-
    • That the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations shall govern the relations between the two countries;
    • That the two countries are resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon between them. Pending the final settlement of any of the problems between the two countries, neither side shall unilaterally alter the situation and both shall prevent the organization, assistance or encouragement of any acts detrimental to the maintenance of peaceful and harmonious relations;
    • That the pre-requisite for reconciliation, good neighbourliness and durable peace between them is a commitment by both the countries to peaceful co-existence, respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, on the basis of equality and mutual benefit;
    • That the basic issues and causes of conflict which have bedevilled the relations between the two countries for the last 25 years shall be resolved by peaceful means;
    • That they shall always respect each other’s national unity, territorial integrity, political independence and sovereign equality;
    • That in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations they will refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of each other.
  • Both Governments will take all steps within their power to prevent hostile propaganda directed against each other. Both countries will encourage the dissemination of such information as would promote the development of friendly relations between them.
  • In order progressively to restore and normalize relations between the two countries step by step, it was agreed that;
    • Steps shall be taken to resume communications, postal, telegraphic, sea, land including border posts, and air links including overflights.
    • Appropriate steps shall be taken to promote travel facilities for the nationals of the other country.
    • Trade and co-operation in economic and other agreed fields will be resumed as far as possible.
    • Exchange in the fields of science and culture will be promoted.
    In this connection delegations from the two countires will meet from time to time to work out the necessary details.
  • In order to initiate the process of the establishment of durable peace, both the Governments agree that:
    • Indian and Pakistani forces shall be withdrawn to their side of the international border.
    • In Jammu and Kashmir, the line of control resulting from the cease-fire of December 17, 1971 shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognized position of either side. Neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations. Both sides further undertake to refrain from the threat or the use of force in violation of this Line.
    • The withdrawals shall commence upon entry into force of this Agreement and shall be completed within a period of 30 days thereof.
  • This Agreement will be subject to ratification by both countries in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures, and will come into force with effect from the date on which the Instruments of Ratification are exchanged.
  • Both Governments agree that their respective Heads will meet again at a mutually convenient time in the future and that, in the meanwhile, the representatives of the two sides will meet to discuss further the modalities and arrangements for the establishment of durable peace and normalization of relations, including the questions of repatriation of prisoners of war and civilian internees, a final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir and the resumption of diplomatic relations.


As passed by the Parliament, Government has notified the National Food Security Act, 2013 on 10th September, 2013 with the objective to provide for food and nutritional security in human life cycle approach, by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people to live a life with dignity. The Act provides for coverage of upto 75% of the rural population and upto 50% of the urban population for receiving subsidized foodgrains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), thus covering about two-thirds of the population. The eligible persons will be entitled to receive 5 Kgs of foodgrains per person per month at subsidised prices of Rs. 3/2/1 per Kg for rice/wheat/coarse grains. The existing Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) households, which constitute the poorest of the poor, will continue to receive 35 Kgs of foodgrains per household per month.
2.         The Act also has a special focus on the nutritional support to women and children. Besides meal to pregnant women and lactating mothers during pregnancy and six months after the child birth, such women will also be entitled to receive maternity benefit of not less than Rs. 6,000. Children upto 14 years of age will be entitled to nutritious meals as per the prescribed nutritional standards. In case of non-supply of entitled foodgrains or meals, the beneficiaries will receive food security allowance. The Act also contains provisions for setting up of grievance redressal mechanism at the District and State levels. Separate provisions have also been made in the Act for ensuring transparency and accountability.
(i)           Coverage and entitlement under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS): Upto 75% of the rural population and 50% of the urban population will be covered under TPDS, with uniform entitlement of 5 kg per person per month. However, since Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) households constitute poorest of the poor, and are presently entitled to 35 kg per household per month, entitlement of existing AAY households will be protected at 35 kg per household per month.
(ii)          State-wise coverage: Corresponding to the all India coverage of 75% and 50% in the rural and urban areas, State-wise coverage will be determined by the Central Government. Planning Commission has determined the State-wise coverage by using the NSS Household Consumption Survey data for 2011-12 and also provided the State-wise “inclusion ratios”.
(iii)         Subsidised prices under TPDS and their revision: Foodgrains under TPDS will be made available at subsidised prices of Rs. 3/2/1 per kg for rice, wheat and coarse grains for a period of three years from the date of commencement of the Act. Thereafter prices will be suitably linked to Minimum Support Price (MSP).
(iv)         In case, any State’s allocation under the Act is lower than their current allocation, it will be protected upto the level of average offtake during last three years, at prices to be determined by the Central Government. Existing prices for APL households i.e. Rs. 6.10 per kg for wheat and Rs 8.30 per kg for rice has been determined as issue prices for the additional allocation to protect the average offtake during last three years.
(v)          Identification of Households: Within the coverage under TPDS determined for each State, the work of identification of eligible households is to be done by States/UTs.
(vi)         Nutritional Support to women and children: Pregnant women and lactating mothers and children in the age group of 6 months to 14 years will be entitled to meals as per prescribed nutritional norms under Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and Mid-Day Meal (MDM) schemes. Higher nutritional norms have been prescribed for malnourished children upto 6 years of age.
(vii)        Maternity Benefit: Pregnant women and lactating mothers will also be entitled to receive maternity benefit of not less than Rs. 6,000.
(viii)      Women Empowerment: Eldest woman of the household of age 18 years or above to be the head of the household for the purpose of issuing of ration cards.
(ix)         Grievance Redressal Mechanism: Grievance redressal mechanism at the District and State levels. States will have the flexibility to use the existing machinery or set up separate mechanism.
(x)          Cost of intra-State transportation & handling of foodgrains and FPS Dealers' margin: Central Government will provide assistance to States in meeting the expenditure incurred by them on transportation of foodgrains within the State, its handling and FPS dealers’ margin as per norms to be devised for this purpose.
(xi)         Transparency and Accountability: Provisions have been made for disclosure of records relating to PDS, social audits and setting up of Vigilance Committees in order to ensure transparency and accountability.
(xii)        Food Security Allowance: Provision for food security allowance to entitled beneficiaries in case of non-supply of entitled foodgrains or meals.
(xiii)      Penalty: Provision for penalty on public servant or authority, to be imposed by the State Food Commission, in case of failure to comply with the relief recommended by the District Grievance Redressal Officer.

Indo- Nepal Relations 2014

PM's Nepal Visit - Some Highlights

Focus on 4Cs: Cooperation. Connectivity. Culture. Constitution

India will give Nepal a one billion dollar line of credit. This will be in addition to any existing lines of credit. 

Pancheswor Development Authority will be set up and DPR finalized in one year

India and Nepal have agreed to conclude Power Trading Agreement in 45 days. 

India will provide assistance for construction of a motorable bridge over the Mahakali River. 

India will expedite construction of postal roads and feeder roads to the Terai. 

Prime Minister announced a gift of 2500 kg of sandalwood to the Pashupatinath Temple. Work on a Dharamshala to be set up by Pashupatinath Development Authority will commence soon with Indian assistance. 

Renovation and restoration of the Complex will be done using expertise of Archaeological Survey of India. India will provide Rs. 25 crore for the same. 

India will offer assistance for development of Janakpur-Lumbini, including Lumbini as part of Buddhist circuit. 

Scholarships for Nepali students increased from 180 to 250. 

Joint Working Group on Agriculture will meet quickly. India will offer assistance in soil testing. 

Nepal gave an assurance that Nepali soil will not be used for anything inimicable to Indian interests. 

During his meeting with Nepali leaders from across the political spectrum, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi urged them - dal ke hit me mat socho, desh ke hit mein socho - Think in terms of the nation's benefit, not the party's benefit. 

PM’s announcements during his address to the Constituent Assembly of Nepal

The Prime Minister gave a HIT formula for Nepal, saying India wants to help Nepal build highways (H), information highways (I) and transways - transmission lines (T). 

The Prime Minister announced that India will give Nepal 10,000 crore Nepali rupee concessional line of credit, for its development. 

The Prime Minister announced that he is keen to double power supply to Nepal. 

The Prime Minister said pipelines would be built to help transport oil to Nepal. He said scholarships to students from Nepal would be increased. India would help Nepal emerge as a major exporter of herbal medicines. India would also help develop the tourism potential of Nepal, both as a spiritual, and adventure tourism destination. 

Stating that the sooner Nepal comes close to us, the better, the Prime Minister urged that the bridge on the Mahakali river and the Pancheshwar multi-purpose project should be taken up at the earliest. 

Noting that it is more expensive to make a telephone call between India and Nepal, than it is to make a call between India and USA, the Prime Minister said he is keen to change this fact. 

The India-Nepal border should not be a barrier but a bridge which helps bring prosperity to both sides, the Prime Minister said. 

He offered assistance to Nepal in the fields of organic farming, and soil health. 

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PM Narendra Modi Speech on 15 Aug 2014 Lal kila Delhi

Highlights of Prime Minister’s Address on Independence Day 

1. Dear countrymen, on this auspicious occasion of Independence Day, many good wishes from the Prime Servant of India. I am here amidst you not as a Prime Minister but as the Prime Servant.

2. I bow to all freedom fighters who sacrificed and dedicated their lives for country’s independence.

3. Independence Day is an occasion to take a pledge for the welfare of all those who are down trodden, poor, exploited and oppressed and to do something for them.

4. Every action should be tested on the yardstick of national interest. If we resolve to live a life like that, the festival of Independence may become an inspiration to take India to new heights.

5. This country has been built not by the rulers but by farmers, workers, mothers and sisters, youth, sages and saints, teachers, scientists and social workers.

6. A child hailing from a small town and belonging to a poor family is today having the good fortune of bowing before India’s tricolour from the ramparts of the Red Fort. It is the power of India’s democracy and priceless blessing given by the authors of the Indian constitution. I bow to them.

7. All Prime Ministers of the country have contributed to the progress of the country after independence. Likewise, all Governments of the country as well as state Governments have also contributed.

8. Let us move together, think together, resolve together and unitedly take the country forward.125 crore countrymen have taken the country forward with this credo.

9. We are not among those who function on the strength of majority. We want to move forward on a strong base of consensus.

10. I also greet all Members of Parliament and all political parties from the ramparts of the Red Fort with pride. We ended the Parliament session yesterday with an important experiment of taking the nation forward with strong consensus.
11. When I had an insider’s view after coming to Delhi, it looked as if dozens of parallel Governments were running within the Government, each with its own fiefdom. I witnessed conflict and scattering. I have begun an attempt to make the Government an organic unit.

12. The machine called Government or establishment is to be made sharper and swifter for fulfilling aspirations of the people.

13. Right from a peon to the Cabinet Secretary everybody is capable. Everybody has power and experience. I want to harness their power and use it to speed up national welfare. I will certainly do it.

14. Our great leaders won freedom, do we not have a duty towards the India of their dreams, and don’t we have a national character. A time has come to think seriously over these issues.

15. Should 125 crore countrymen not have a mantra to ensure that their every step is in national interest.

16. Everything is not for self. Some things are also for the nation. One should rise above the self-interest and think about the national interest.

17. Parents ask a number of questions when a daughter goes out, but do they ever have the courage to ask their son about his friends or where is he going or why. After all a rapist is also someone’s son.

18. Nepal provides an example of youth laying down arms and taking to education. It can inspire the youth who have taken to violence, all over the world.

19. Even after independence we sometime face poison of casteism or communalism. How long will it continue and who is going to benefit from it?

20. I appeal to youth of the country that the poison of casteism, communalism or sectarianism is a hindrance to country’s progress. Think and try a ten years moratorium to get a society free of all these tensions.

21. In Commonwealth games our 64 sports persons won medals. These include 29 women. Let us be proud of these daughters.

22. There are two tracks in the country to move forward, good governance and development. We can progress only on these tracks.

23. Crores of families have mobile phones but not a bank account. We have to change this situation.

24. Those in Government service are not doing a job but a service, this feeling is to be renewed.

25. Just imagine, if 125 crore countrymen take a step forward the country will move 125 crore steps forward.

26. Who so ever will open an account under Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana will be provided with a debit card and insurance worthRs.One lakh.

27. We want to link poor people of the country with a bank account facility through Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana.

28. Our country is the youngest nation of the world. Skill development is our mission for development of the country.

29. I want to develop such youth who are job creators.

30. If we wish to provide maximum employment to youth we will have to promote manufacturing sector.

31. We have skill, talent and discipline and a will to perform. We want to give a collective opportunity to the world. ….Come, make in India, we have the strength, come to our country, I invite you.

32. A farmer serves the country by filling the granaries in the same way as a soldier defends the motherland. It is also a national service.

33. Youth should resolve that may be at a small level, they will make at least one article that the country imports, so that it may never need be imported in future.

34. Youth belonging to the IT profession have paved the way for establishing India’s new identity in the world.

35. Digital India is our dream for the nation. When I say ‘digital India’ it is not meant for the rich but for those who are poor.

36. If we move with the dream of electronic digital India and manufacturing of electronic goods and become self-reliant, it will be a major gain for the country.

37. There was a time when it was said that Railway unites the country. I say, today IT has the power to unite the country and its people.

38. We want to promote tourism. Tourism provides employment to the poorest of the poor. Even the small vendor, auto driver, chaatseller and tea stall owner earns from it. While talking of tea seller, I feel a degree of affinity.

39. Biggest obstruction to development of national character is the filth seen all around us. The first job in the government I did after coming here, was that of cleaning. People were surprised. Is it the job of a Prime Minister. But for me, it is a very big job.

40. If 125 crore countrymen decide not to ever spread filth, then no power in the world can make our village or town dirty.

41. Let us decide that in 2019 when we observe Mahatma Gandhi’s 150th anniversary, we will not let our village, city, country, school, colony,   temple, hospital and all other areas remain dirty. It is not Government’s job, it is to be done by public participation.

42. Presently, our mothers and sisters are forced to defecate in open. Do we like this and is not our responsibility to arrange for toilets at least?

43. I have to launch a Swachch Bharat campaign from 2nd October and we want to carry this forward within four years.

44. One task which I would like to begin today, is toilet in all schools of India and a separate toilet for girls. Only then the girls will not drop out of schools. I urge all Members of Parliament to use their MPLAD fund for construction of toilets in the schools for one year.

45. When we stand here on next 15th August, we should be confident that there is no school left in the country without separate toilets for boys and girls.

46. I today announce a scheme named after the Parliamentarians- ’Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana’.Every MP has to develop one village in his or her constituency into a model village under this scheme.

47. A Parliamentarian should develop two more villages before going for election after 2016 in the year 2019. After that every MP has to develop at least five villages during a five year tenure.

48. A complete blue print of Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana will be presented to all MPs and all State Governments by 11th October,Jayprakash Narayan’s Jayanti.

49. We will have to think about giving a new shape to the Planning Commission in order to utilise our federal structure as a heritage of development and better team work between the Centre and states.

50. Strengthen State Governments, federal structure, with new outlook, new body and soul and with new direction, we will create a new institution. Very soon this new institute will start working in place of Planning Commission.

51. India’s divine strength and spiritual heritage will play a major role in world’s welfare. These thoughts were expressed by ShriAurobindo.

52. As Swami Vivekananda said that once again Mother India has awaken, my mother India will take her place as teacher of the world and every Indian will be a tool of global welfare.

53. Why shouldn’t all SAARC countries fight against poverty and defeat it.

54. I went to Bhutan and Nepal. Dignitaries from SAARC countries came to swearing in ceremony. This is a very good beginning. Definitely there will be good results.  

55. I assure you, if you will work for twelve hour I will work for thirteen because I am not a Prime Minister but a Prime Servant. I have come with this government as a servant not as a ruler.

56. I felicitate country’s security forces, para military forces for protecting Mother India and for their determination and sacrifice.

Planning Commission of India

Planning Commission, Government of India
The Planning Commission was set up in March, 1950 by a Resolution of the Government of India which defined the scope of its work in the following terms :

" The Constitution of India has guaranteed certain Fundamental Rights to the citizens of India and enunciated certain Directive Principles of State Policy, in particular, that the State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life, and shall direct its policy towards securing, among other things,—
  1. that the citizens, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means of livelihood ;
  2. that the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to subserve the common good ; and
  3. that the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment.
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Having regard to these rights and in furtherance of these principles as well as of the declared objective of the Government to promote a rapid rise in the standard of living of the people by efficient exploitation of the resources of the country, increasing production, and offering opportunities to all for employment in the service of the community.
The Planning Commission will—
  1. make an assessment of the material, capital and human resources of the country, including technical personnel, and investigate the possibilities of augmenting such of these resources as are found to be deficient in relationto the nation's requirements ;
  2. formulate a Plan for the most effective and balanced utilisation of the country's resources ;
  3. on a determination of priorities, define the stages in which the Plan should be carried out and propose the allocation of resources for the due completion of each stage ;
  4. indicate the factors which are tending to retard economic development, and determine the conditions which, in view of the current social and political situation, should be established for the successful execution of the Plan ;
  5. determine the nature of the machinery which will be necessary for securing the successful implementation of each stage of the Plan in all its aspects ;
  6. appraise from time to time the progress achieved in the execution of each stage of the Plan and recommend the adjustments of policy and measures that such appraisal may show to be necessary ; and
  7. make such interim or ancillary recommendations as appear to it to be appropriate either for facilitating the discharge of the duties assigned to it ; or, on a consideration of the prevailing economic conditions, current policies, measures and development programmes ; or on an examination of such specific problems as may be referred to it for advice by Central or State Governments."                                                 


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The Planning Commission was set up by a Resolution of the Government of India in March 1950 in pursuance of declared objectives of the Government to promote a rapid rise in the standard of living of the people by efficient exploitation of the resources of the country, increasing production and offering opportunities to all for employment in the service of the community. The Planning Commission was charged with the responsibility of making assessment of all resources of the country, augmenting deficient resources, formulating plans for the most effective and balanced utilisation of resources and determining priorities. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Chairman of the Planning Commission.
The first Five-year Plan was launched in 1951 and two subsequent five-year plans were formulated till 1965, when there was a break because of the Indo-Pakistan Conflict. Two successive years of drought, devaluation of the currency, a general rise in prices and erosion of resources disrupted the planning process and after three Annual Plans between 1966 and 1969, the fourth Five-year plan was started in 1969.
The Eighth Plan could not take off in 1990 due to the fast changing political situation at the Centre and the years 1990-91 and 1991-92 were treated as Annual Plans. The Eighth Plan was finally launched in 1992 after the initiation of structural adjustment policies.
For the first eight Plans the emphasis was on a growing public sector with massive investments in basic and heavy industries, but since the launch of the Ninth Plan in 1997, the emphasis on the public sector has become less pronounced and the current thinking on planning in the country, in general, is that it should increasingly be of an indicative nature.


The 1950 resolution setting up the Planning Commission outlined its functions as to:
  1. Make an assessment of the material, capital and human resources of the country, including technical personnel, and investigate the possibilities of augmenting such of these resources as are found to be deficient in relation to the nation’s requirement;
  2. Formulate a Plan for the most effective and balanced utilisation of country's resources;
  3. On a determination of priorities, define the stages in which the Plan should be carried out and propose the allocation of resources for the due completion of each stage;
  4. Indicate the factors which are tending to retard economic development, and determine the conditions which, in view of the current social and political situation, should be established for the successful execution of the Plan;
  5. Determine the nature of the machinery which will be necessary for securing the successful implementation of each stage of the Plan in all its aspects;
  6. Appraise from time to time the progress achieved in the execution of each stage of the Plan and recommend the adjustments of policy and measures that such appraisal may show to be necessary; and
  7. Make such interim or ancillary recommendations as appear to it to be appropriate either for facilitating the discharge of the duties assigned to it, or on a consideration of prevailing economic conditions, current policies, measures and development programmes or on an examination of such specific problems as may be referred to it for advice by Central or State Governments.

Evolving Functions

From a highly centralised planning system, the Indian economy is gradually moving towards indicative planning where Planning Commission concerns itself with the building of a long term strategic vision of the future and decide on priorities of nation. It works out sectoral targets and provides promotional stimulus to the economy to grow in the desired direction.
Planning Commission plays an integrative role in the development of a holistic approach to the policy formulation in critical areas of human and economic development. In the social sector, schemes which require coordination and synthesis like rural health, drinking water, rural energy needs, literacy and environment protection have yet to be subjected to coordinated policy formulation. It has led to multiplicity of agencies. An integrated approach can lead to better results at much lower costs.
The emphasis of the Commission is on maximising the output by using our limited resources optimally. Instead of looking for mere increase in the plan outlays, the effort is to look for increases in the efficiency of utilisation of the allocations being made.
With the emergence of severe constraints on available budgetary resources, the resource allocation system between the States and Ministries of the Central Government is under strain. This requires the Planning Commission to play a mediatory and facilitating role, keeping in view the best interest of all concerned. It has to ensure smooth management of the change and help in creating a culture of high productivity and efficiency in the Government.
The key to efficient utilisation of resources lies in the creation of appropriate self-managed organisations at all levels. In this area, Planning Commission attempts to play a systems change role and provide consultancy within the Government for developing better systems. In order to spread the gains of experience more widely, Planning Commission  also plays an information dissemination role.


The Prime Minister is the Chairman of the Planning Commission, which works under the overall guidance of the National Development Council. The Deputy Chairman and the full time Members of the Commission, as a composite body, provide advice and guidance to the subject Divisions for the formulation of Five Year Plans, Annual Plans, State Plans, Monitoring Plan Programmes, Projects and Schemes.


[ For PDF Files : Download Acrobat Reader  ]
  1. Task Force to Review Guidelines on Scheduled Castes Sub-Plan and Tribal Sub-PlanRecommendations to Revise Guidelines for Implementation of Scheduled Castes Sub-Plan and Tribal Sub-Plan by Central Ministries/Departments: PDF File
  2. Report of the Taskforce "To look into the Problems of Hills States and Hill Areas and to suggest ways to ensure that these states and areas do not suffer in any way because of their peculiarities" : PDF File
  3. Task forces on HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT, Planning Commission
  4. Special Task Force on Bihar
    • Bihar's Exposure To Innovative Governance Practices [ PDF ]
    • Road Map For Development of Power Sector in Bihar [ PDF ]
    • Road Map For Development of Health Sector in Bihar [ PDF ]
    • Road Map For Rural Industrialisation in Bihar[ PDF ]
    • Bihar's Exposure Towards the Banking Sector [ PDF ]
    • Bihar Road Sector Development - New Dimensions [ PDF ]
    • Bihar's Agriculture Development - Opportunities and Challaeges [ PDF ]
    • Information Technology Led Growth In Bihar - A Road Map [ PDF ]
  5. Task Force on Skill Development [ PDF [4.00MB] || ZIP(MS Word) ]
  6. Task Group on Problems of Hilly Habitations in Areas Covered by the Hill Areas Development Programme (HADP)/Western Ghats Development Programme (WGDP) - Constitution || Report
  7. Task Group on Revamping and Refocusing of National Agricultural Research [ PDF [1.9MB] || ZIP(MS Word) ]
  8. Task Force on Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) [ PDF || ZIP ]
  9. Task Force on Integrated Transport Policy [ PDF || ZIP ]
  10. Task Force on Greening India for Livelihood Security and Sustainable Development [ PDF Format ]
  11. Task Force on India as Knowledge Superpower [ PDF Format ]
  12. Task force on Employment Opportunities
  13. Report of the Task Force on conservation & sustainable use of Medicinal Plants
  14. Task Force on Sugar Industry
  15. Inter-Ministry Taskgroup Reports
  16. Report of the Task Force on Eco-Devlopment Plan for Goa, March 1982 - [ PDF ]


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Eleventh Five Year Plan

Tenth Five Year Plan

Steering Committees and Advisory / Working Groups
  1. Steering Committees...
  2. Advisory / Working Groups...

A Guide to be a good judge

Speech by Hon'ble Chief Justice Mr. Deepak Verma

My esteemed Brother Judges, Members of the Registry, Members of the Sub-ordinate Judiciary, Director and his team of Judicial Academy, delegates of this batch, ladies and gentlemen, my very good evening to you.

It is indeed the matter of great pleasure to be with all of you this evening. I am happy that I have been bestowed with this task of throwing light to you about my experiences, firstly as an Advocate and thereafter, as a Judge.

No doubt it is true that you all are new having successfully completed one year's strenuous training, but I am latest as I have taken oath of Chief Justice only on 6th March, 2009. Thus, I am just two days old as a Chief Justice.

When it was told that your training programme would come to an end today, then I thought that I must come and address you, otherwise you may feel that head of the family has not addressed you. It was also at the insistence of Hon'ble Mr. Justice Prakash Chand Tatia and Hon'ble Mr. Justice Mohammad Rafiq, whose advocacy prevailed over me. Most of you must be aware that before my elevation as Judge I had practiced for about twenty two years at Jabalpur, thus I thought it fit to share my own experience with you.

Since you have already undergone training of legal ethics law subjects, time management, your conduct and behaviour, I would not like to touch the subject of law in the speech.

We all belong to Hindi speaking State, but in judiciary English language has yet not been given a complete go by, thus knowledge of English is almost essential. If you are not so fluent and well-versed with the language then there is no harm, if you join any of the tutorial classes to acquire perfection in it.

Actually with the passage of time, when you are likely to come within the zone of consideration for elevation as Judge of High Court, at that time it would pay you every heavy dividends.

I would like to give you one example. One of the senior-most lady District & Sessions Judge who had already come within the zone of consideration for elevation as Judge of the High Court was required to send her selected judgments on civil and criminal matters both. She was kind enough to send twenty of her judgments touching both the sides, but believe you me, not even one was in English. I, therefore, had my own reservation in sending her name, I declined. But after I left Madhya Pradesh, her name was sent, but still she could not be appointed as it was not approved by the Supreme Court. I do not want, any one of you to undergo this turmoil. Do not take it as a warning, but it is a request to you as a "karta" of the family.

No Doubt, it is true that Hindi is a beautiful language but in our system English is still has more weightage than Hindi. We must have also noticed that all law journals are in English only.

I was delighted to learn that prior to your selection and appointed, most of you were practicing advocated in District Courts. Thus, you have dual experience of advocate first and now as Judge. Obviously, you have seen both sides of the coin.

While practicing as an Advocate, if you have noticed some shortcomings or failure on the part of the then Presiding Judges, then this is the time when you have to mend your ways; please do not try to repeat with what you have been hurt earlier when you appeared before those errant Judges. This is one of the ways to improve you own conduct and behaviour.

First and foremost in the list would be commitment. The task of dispensation of justice is not only tough but onerous also. Unless you have great degree of commitment to the same, you are not likely to get the divine pleasure of doing justice. Get yourself fully engrossed in to it. Treat it as your "Dharma" and then work as "Karma Yogi".

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Next most important is honesty and integrity. I need not say, that judges, by their very nature of work, required to be performed, have to be absolutely upright and honest. If anyone has inclination to deviate from the path of honesty even once, then you take it from me that it shall be difficult for them to follow the path of honesty in future. It is like a lion tasting human blood once, then he becomes a man eater. Avoid it at any cost, however big the allurement may be there.

Next in line would be conduct and attitude of Judges with the members of the Bar. How crucial and important it is? I put a question to myself as to how I am going to gain, if I become rude or curt to an Advocate. Then I thought to myself that it would only shoot up my blood pressure and nothing else. Thus one should be as polite and polished to them as it may be possible to do.

You have only to show your teeth and they must realise that they are not only for show but are capable of biting also, even though they may not be used for it. Everyone has too much stress and tension in life, why should we unnecessarily add to our miseries, if the same can be conveniently avoided by controlling ourselves. I hope, I am clear to you.

Here, I would like to narrate my own incident. While I was at Indore Bench, I was assigned the writ petitions of all types. Those days, there used to be only one writ court, where all types of matters used to come. Senior Advocate was arguing one matter for admission and stay. I directed issuance of notices to the respondents, so as to know their say also. But he vehemently pressed for interim stay, which I was not inclined to grant, at that time. In the process, both of us lost temper and atmosphere was fully charged. I almost scolded him and did not grant stay as prayed for.

During recess, when I came to by chamber, I stood before God and asked him to be pardoned for my misconduct in that case, particularly with a senior Advocate. While I was praying my jamedar came and informed me that same senior Advocate has come to meet me. I immediately called him and told him about my prayers. Believe me, he had come with 'Prasad' for me which he had offered to Lord Hanuman, in temple situated within the High Court premises, for his own rude and impertinent behaviour. I had tears in my eyes. I was emotionally moved.

Ever since then I have taken a vow not to be rude, uncourteous or curt to any one, much less to the litigants or Advocates. I am happy, God has been kind to me to give courage and strength to keep the said promise. Though this is a small story but has a great message into it. So please follow it religiously. On the contrary, errant and rude Advocate would himself mend his ways so as to have a soothing effect in your court.

Be patient. It is a virtue to be developed. You must reach the Court fully prepared with all your cases listed in the Court but, do not come with predetermined mind as it may greatly prejudice one of the parties. Coming prepared with your notes has many advantages. Firstly, it would cut short lengthy arguments, obviously it would be less time consuming and even complicated matters can be heard and disposed of early; one advantage of it that I can see, is that unnecessary lengthy arguments likely to be advanced by learned members of the Bar can be greatly controlled but, while doing so, please maintain the decorum of the Court; do not loose your temper and never forget that you have to be courteous and humble to them in stopping them. We are paid for hearing and advocates are paid for arguing, thus, both of us are required to perform our duties but, let it be in a peaceful and congenial atmosphere.

Another mode by which you can effectively control the work of your Court is to have the cause list of your Court published one day before and get it pasted on the notice board in your Court and one copy be available with the Court Reader. Try to take up the matters in your Court as per the cause-list. Interlocutory applications may be taken up in the first half, and thereafter, the evidence of witnesses may be recorded. If lengthy arguments are to be heard on some interlocutory application, then it can even be posted after the break. The arguments of main matter on merits should be heard after the break. As mentioned above, if you are yourself prepared, then it will not take long time.

I was happy to learn that you have also been given lectures on time management. Time management is one issue to which we do not give due importance. In the present scenario, time management has its own role rather an important role. Unless you have the concept of time management, you will not be able to finish up the day's work. If you are not able to meet the day's target, then it is the time when you have to cut short of your one hour's sleep or so.

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Then next in line would be compatibility. Compatibility, which used to exist earlier between Bar and Bench is now fast depleting. You have to go deep into the matter and an endeavour should be made to restore it as it used to be earlier. It should not be constructed that Judges are required to be close to Advocates or litigants. It is a question of congenial, pleasant and working atmosphere to be created in courts.

I will give you one living example that had taken place in Madhya Pradesh High Court at Jabalpur. It was some time in the year 1975 or so. One of the Senior Judge summoned Mr. M.M. Sapre, Senior Advocate, who was the standing counsel for the Electricity Board. For that particular month Hon'ble Judge got the electricity bill, far exceeding the amount expected by him. He was disturbed. Mr. Sapre took the bill and told him he would look into it. Next day he got it rectified, which suited the Hon'ble Judge and gave it to him in his chambers. Same day, Mr. Sapre's, Second Appeal for admission against a reversing judgment was listed. He argued it with full force but as was expected, it was dismissed by the said Judge then and there. In the corridors Mr. Sapre told me that the order of dismissal was perfectly justified and in accordance with law and that is what he had expected. Tell me as to which Judge or Advocate would behave in this fashion today. This is what is expected from the Bench.

I need not emphasise that judges have to be punctual. Punctuality is the key to success. It should be observed strictly. If you do not sit on time, on the ground that you will be sitting late in the evening, is not justified. As by doing so you are unnecessarily putting the advocates and the litigants to inconvenience. If you sit on time and arrange your court Diary, accordingly lawyers will also be able to match with your timings. In that case, you would not be required to unnecessarily wait for the Advocate.

Another aspect of the matter is whenever any witness is present, then every endeavor should be made to get his evidence recorded so that he may be discharged on the same day. As it is, even for the litigants it is difficult to come to court, then you can well imagine the plight of witnesses who are required to come to give evidence at the behest of litigants.

While writing orders or judgments, let the same not reflect or display any judicial dishonesty. What I mean to say is whatever arguments have been advanced by both parties, must be narrated in short in the order or judgment and whenever citations have been given in support of their respective contentions, the same may also be mentioned in it. If according to your opinion, the said judgment would not be applicable to the facts of the case, then reasons may be assigned in this regard. The orders should be short, crisp and reasoned.

Always keep in mind that judgments and orders should be pronounced on the same day when they have been fixed for the said purposes. It is desirable that too much delay in pronouncing the judgments and orders is not good for the institution as one starts getting feeling that may be other party has already approached the learned judge, even though it may not be true at all. Why to give chance to any litigant to come to such an unreasonable conclusion? Whatever matters have been argued and heard by you on Saturday, see to it that it at least rough judgment or order of the same are ready before next working day, i.e. Monday. Otherwise cases would be piled up in your Court and then it will be difficult for you to deliver judgment in the same as one tends to forget.

Everyone is worried about the arrears of cases which are mounting every day in courts. It has already been declared by the Supreme Court that right to speedy trial is an essential part of fundamental right to life and liberty enshrined under Article 21 of the Constitution. This has been held so in Hussainara Khatoon vs. Home Secretary, State of Bihar and in Sheel Barse vs. Union of India. The following passage of the Supreme Court is essential to be quoted:
"The consequence of violation of fundamental right to speedy trial would mean that the prosecution itself would be liable to be quashed on the ground that it is in breach of the fundamental right."
Judiciary is considered as the last interpreter of the Constitution and is thus sentinel at qui vive to defend the constitutional essentials, promises and aspirations of we, the people. Here I would like to quote what former Chief Justice of India Mr. Justice R.C. Lahoti once stated:
"The seekers of justice approach the Courts of justice with pain and anguish in their hearts on having faced legal problems and having suffered physically and psychologically. They do not take law into their own hands as they believe that they would get justice from the Courts........ we owe an obligation to them to deliver quick and inexpensive justice shorn of the complexities of procedure."

Concerted efforts are required to be made by us and the members of the Bar both to control the huge pendency. If we are not able to do it today, then I am sure, with the huge pendency the whole system is going to be crumbled down.

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Now with the amendment in the Code of civil procedure and the Code of Criminal Procedure, many modes are being provided for early and quick disposal of the matters; try to adopt those methods, but while doing so, do not exert any pressure on either of the party. You have only to explore that as to what would be the repercussion if the matter is kept pending for many years; ultimately, who is going to gain and who is going to loss, if the party who approaches the Court is not able to get quick justice.

Whatever I have said above, though are not exhaustive, but in a nut shell I have tired to summarise the same. By continuous working on the post you are bound to further improve and achieve maturity.

Thanking you and with all good wishes.

Copyright: Rajasthan Judicial Academy, Jodhpur 

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