CAMELS Rating System



CAMELS Rating System

An international bank-rating system where bank supervisory authorities rate institutions according to six factors. 

The six factors are represented by the acronym "CAMELS."
The six factors examined are as follows:

C - Capital adequacy
A - Asset quality
M - Management quality
E - Earnings
L - Liquidity
S - Sensitivity to Market Risk


Bank supervisory authorities assign each bank a score on a scale of one (best) to five (worst) for each factor. If a bank has an average score less than two it is considered to be a high-quality institution, while banks with scores greater than three are considered to be less-than-satisfactory establishments. The system helps the supervisory authority identify banks that are in need of attention.

Composite Ratings

The rating system is designed to take into account and reflect all significant financial and operational factors examiners assess in their evaluation of an institutions performance. Institutions are rated using a combination of specific financial ratios and examiner qualitative judgments.
The following describes some details of the CAMEL system in the context of examining a credit union.

Rating 1

Indicates strong performance and risk management practices that consistently provide for safe and sound operations. Management clearly identifies all risks and employs compensating factors mitigating concerns. The historical trend and projections for key performance measures are consistently positive. Credit unions in this group resist external economic and financial disturbances and withstand the unexpected actions of business conditions more ably than credit unions with a lower composite rating. Any weaknesses are minor and can be handled in a routine manner by the board of directors and management. These credit unions are in substantial compliance with laws and regulations. Such institutions give no cause for supervisory concern.

Rating 2

Reflects satisfactory performance and risk management practices that consistently provide for safe and sound operations. Management identifies most risks and compensates accordingly. Both historical and projected key performance measures should generally be positive with any exceptions being those that do not directly affect safe and sound operations. Credit unions in this group are stable and able to withstand business fluctuations quite well; however, minor areas of weakness may be present which could develop into conditions of greater concern. These weaknesses are well within the board of directors' and management's capabilities and willingness to correct. These credit unions are in substantial compliance with laws and regulations. The supervisory response is limited to the extent that minor adjustments are resolved in the normal course of business and that operations continue to be satisfactory.

Rating 3

Represents performance that is flawed to some degree and is of supervisory concern. Risk management practices may be less than satisfactory relative to the credit union's size, complexity, and risk profile. Management may not identify and provide mitigation of significant risks. Both historical and projected key performance measures may generally be flat or negative to the extent that safe and sound operations may be adversely affected. Credit unions in this group are only nominally resistant to the onset of adverse business conditions and could easily deteriorate if concerted action is not effective in correcting certain identifiable areas of weakness. Overall strength and financial capacity is present so as to make failure only a remote probability. These credit unions may be in significant noncompliance with laws and regulations. Management may lack the ability or willingness to effectively address weaknesses within appropriate time frames. Such credit unions require more than normal supervisory attention to address deficiencies.

Rating 4

Refers to poor performance that is of serious supervisory concern. Risk management practices are generally unacceptable relative to the credit union's size, complexity and risk profile. Key performance measures are likely to be negative. Such performance, if left unchecked, would be expected to lead to conditions that could threaten the viability of the credit union. There may be significant noncompliance with laws and regulations. The board of directors and management are not satisfactorily resolving the weaknesses and problems. A high potential for failure is present but is not yet imminent or pronounced. Credit unions in this group require close supervisory attention.

Rating 5


Considered unsatisfactory performance that is critically deficient and in need of immediate remedial attention. Such performance, by itself or in combination with other weaknesses, directly threatens the viability of the credit union. The volume and severity of problems are beyond management's ability or willingness to control or correct. Credit unions in this group have a high probability of failure and will likely require liquidation and the payoff of shareholders, or some other form of emergency assistance, merger, or acquisition.

Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2011

The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2011 
    

 

The Rajya Sabha passed the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2011 on December 17, 2013 and the Bill has been passed by the Lok Sabha today. 
 Some of the important features in the Bill are as below:-
·         Lokpal at the Centre and Lokayukta at the level of the States.
·         The Lokpal will consist of a Chairperson and a maximum of eight Members, of which fifty percent shall be judicial members.
·         Fifty per cent of members of Lokpal shall be from amongst SC/ST/OBCs, Minorities and Women.
·         The selection of Chairperson and Members of Lokpal shall be through a Selection Committee consisting of:-
§  Prime Minister;
§  Speaker of Lok Sabha;
§  Leader of Opposition  in the Lok Sabha;
§  Chief Justice of India or a sitting Supreme Court judge nominated  by CJI;
§  Eminent jurist to be nominated by the President of India on the basis of recommendations of the first four members of the Selection Committee.  
·         Prime Minister has been brought under the purview of the Lokpal.
·         Lokpal’s jurisdiction will cover all categories of public servants.
·         All entities receiving donations from foreign source in the context of the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA) in excess of Rs. 10 lakhs per year are brought under the jurisdiction of Lokpal.
·         Provides adequate protection for honest and upright Public Servants.
·         Lokpal will have power of superintendence and direction over any investigation agency including CBI for cases referred to them by Lokpal.
·         A high powered Committee chaired by the Prime Minister will recommend selection of the Director,CBI.
·         Directorate of Prosecution headed by a Director of Prosecution under the overall control of Director;
·         The appointment of the Director of Prosecution, CBI on the recommendation of the Central Vigilance Commission;
·         Transfer of officers of CBI investigating cases referred by Lokpal with the approval of Lokpal;
·         The Bill also incorporates provisions for attachment and confiscation of property acquired by corrupt means, even while prosecution is pending.
·         The Bill lays down clear time lines for Preliminary enquiry & investigation and trial and
towards this end, the Bill provides for setting up of Special Courts.
·         A mandate for setting up of the institution of Lokayukta through enactment of a law by the State Legislature within a period of 365 days from the date of commencement of the Act.

National Forest Policy (NFP) 1988

National Forest Policy (NFP) 1988 envisages that 33% of the geographical area should be under forest or tree cover. Salient features of National Forest Policy are :
  • Maintenance of environmental stability and restoration of ecological balance.
  • Conservation of natural heritage.
  • Checking soil erosion and denudation.
  • Increasing substantially the forest/tree cover.
  • Meeting the requirements of fuelwood, fodder, NTFP and small timber.
  • Increasing productivity of forests.
  • Encouraging efficient utilisation of forest produce and maximising substitution.
  • Creating a massive people’s movement specially with the involvement of women.
Above points clearly indicate that NFP envisages overriding consideration for environmental concerns against commercial priorities.

The National Forest Policy 1988 (NFP) envisages that 33% of the geographical area should be under forest or tree cover. The objectives include maintenance of environmental stability, conserving natural heritage of the country, checking soil erosion and desertification, enhancing

forest cover, meeting fuelwood, fodder small timber and Non Timber Forest Product (NTFP) demands of local people and efficient utilisation of forest produce.
In order to attain the aforesaid objectives massive people's participation in the management of the forest resources has been envisaged in the NFP. Keeping above objectives in view the SFAP exercise has been undertaken.

Role of Lokayukta in combating Corruption and Mal-administration and measures for strengthening these Institutions



Nowadays, corruption is internationally recognized as a major problem in society, one capable of endangering the stability and security of societies, threatening social, economic and political development and undermining the values of democracy and morality. International cooperation is indispensable to combat corruption and promote accountability, transparency and the rule of law.

In its widest connotation, corruption includes improper or selfish exercise of power and influence attached to a public office due to the special position one occupies in public life. The developing countries like India face this problem. Throughout the fabric of public life in the developing countries runs the scarlet thread of bribery and corruption.

Corruption hurts the public directly and tragically, particularly as it penalizes the honest and rewards the dishonest among them.

Corruption and mal-administration impose a great strain on democracy and we all know that corruption is the end product of a process of administration and is preceded by mal-administration.

To live in a society which pursues good governance practices is today a basic human right. The quality of an individual citizen's life is materially affected by both the decisions taken by government and the manner in which those decisions are implemented.

A just and civil society requires a system of government which whilst operating within the rule of law provides for a wider recognition of the need for accountability to citizens on whose behalf government undertakes its responsibility. The traditional role of Ombudsman provides an effective accountability mechanism, which is now in place in more than 100 countries. The role of Lokayukta is necessary in providing a mechanism which can balance the fundamental requirement that governments must be able to govern but with appropriate accountability
"Good Government"-- is expected to contain a number of key components: political legitimacy for the state through democratic elections and transfer of power, and an effective political opposition and representative government; accountability through transparency and the provision of information; separation of powers; effective internal and external audit; effective means of combating corruption and nepotism; official competency, such as trained public servants; realistic policies and low defence expenditure; human right as indicated by freedom of religion and movement; impartial and accessible criminal justice systems; and the absence of arbitrary government power. Good government is also seen as an essential condition toward the wider goal of good governance. Described as the "use of political authority and the exercise of control over society and the management of its resources for social and economic development", good governance encompasses the "nature of functioning of a state's institutional and structural arrangements, decision-making processes, policy formulation, implementation capacity, information flows, effectiveness of leadership, and the nature of the relationship between rules and the ruled".

Those who have tried to live as moral men in an immoral society have generally given way, sooner or later, under agonizing pressures of legitimate ambition which can only be achieved through illegitimate means- the pressure from family obligations, the slow insidious pressures of a society in which material success is adulated and where material failure is ruthlessly mocked, the pressure of increasing defeatism, or realization that public opinion stigmatizes the transgressor so lightly, and that so little seems to be gained by trying to swim against the tide.
In view of the cumbersome and curious procedures and practices in the Government departments the anxiety on the part of the common man to avoid delay has encouraged practice of paying speed money. This has become a fairly common type of corrupt practice particularly in matters relating to the grant of licensees and permits. Very often the bribe giver does not wish to get anything done unlawfully, but just wants to speed up the movement of files and communications from department to department. Certain sections of the staff have got into the habit of not doing anything in the matter till they are suitably rewarded.

Besides being a most objectionable corrupt practice, this custom of 'speed money' has become one of the most serious cause of delay and inefficiency and no work culture. Deliberate delay in the movement of papers by petty officers in Government offices in the hope of collecting 'speed money' is one way of frustrating honest citizens.

Frequently enough the dishonest contractors and suppliers who, having obtained the contract by undercutting, want to deliver inferior goods or get the approval for sub-standard work, and for this purpose are prepared to spend a portion of their ill-earned profits. Tax evasion, malpractices in the share market and in the administration of companies, monopolistic controls, under invoicing or over- invoicing, hoarding, profiteering, sub-standard performance of contracts of constructions and supplies, evasion of economic laws, bribe, election offences, malpractices, are some examples of white collar crime. Behind this sordid picture of conditions is a fine network of details about the techniques adopted in the process of corruption. while small people might give bribes to get small favours there are large contractors and other anti-social sharks who consciously follow corrupt practices to further their greedy designs.
Thus the honest taxpayers pay their legitimate dues, pay the extra taxes to make up for the tax-evader, and also pay interest on tax-evader's investment in loans. It amounts to penalizing honesty and rewarding dishonesty.

There is yet another temptation to which some officials succumb, namely, to use their public office as a means of making money in an allied private business in which they are engaged. Doctrinaire attempts to regulate public morals is yet another root of corruption. Prohibition is one source which provides the police with immense opportunity for corruption. The more the laws the greater the opportunities for making easy money.

A second set of social cause of corruption can broadly be described as lack of personal virture or a sense of morality. Corruption is a consequence of the way of life of our acquisitive society, where people are judged by what they have rather than what they are. The possession of material goods seems to have become the sine qua non of life. There inevitably results a scramble for acquisition of glittering prizes, irrespective of the means adopted. The lack of vigilance by the people has also contributed to the growth of corruption.

The best means to combat corruption, even in terms of the cost for society, is prevention. Effective prevention can thus reduce the extent and the costs of penal action.

Public awareness and tolerance and the effective role of the mass media would be of great help. The role of the mass media in uncovering corruption cases and in building anti-corruption awareness is important for both the prevention and the investigation and control of corruption.
Good governance cannot be said to be the exercise of power without accountability. The exercise of power should never be absolute in any system, that will lead inevitably to corruption. What is needed is balance between the ability to govern effectively and the processes by which those who govern are held to account. Good governance requires having confidence in the system by which we are governed and trust in those to whom as individual citizens we delegate through the ballot box the responsibilities and burdens of governing.

The unlimited, unbridled and unchannelized powers exercised by political leaders in democrative setup as Heads of the department is also responsible to a very great extent for mal-administration and corruption. The said powers should be curtailed and political intervention be reduced in public administration.

The so called red tapeism in bureaucracy requires proper tapering. The rules and procedure of administration should be simplified and made transparent. The administrative processes in all matters in which citizens are directly involved should be simplified and classified.

The most important element in combating corruption is effective and speedy punishment. The judicial system has failed and we will have to think alternative method by which the effective punishment could be achieved. It has been realized that the departments are slow in efficiency or with the desire to protect corrupt officials in going slow in departmental action.

In this information age where information is so readily available to, and shared with the world, we may be witnessing growing pressure upon the historical contract between a nation state and its citizens, particularly in countries with democratic traditions or moving towards democratisation.

Increasing accessibility to information and at greater speed, coupled with a powerful and free news media, is extending the expectation of what that historical contract entails. The power relationship in most states- the power balance between governor and governed- is perceived to be shifting dramatically away from those seeking to wield authority in the name of the state and in favour of the individual citizen.

Codes of ethics and integrity testing are of great importance in developing a civic sense of respect for institutions and human rights. Procedures for auditing by independent internal as well as external bodies is of paramount importance in preventing corruption. The prime need is a common standard of morality- by for the most important corruptive.

Re-organization of vigilance departments is required. This department is mainly intended to investigate and punish corruption and the misuse of authority by individual members of the services under the Government. However, there is no organic relation between the Administration vigilance Division and the Vigilance Officers of various departments.

The press has played a significant role in uncovering the cause of corruption and in mobilizing public opinion against such practices. Elsewhere too, it has done a great deal to publicize cases of proved corruption or allegation of corruption. But it has not played its legitimate role of probing administration.

Voluntary organizations in this country have not yet come into the field of helping people with their complaints. We have to mobilize ultimately public opinion and public involvement in the fight against corruption. That is where the NGOs can play an effective role. The NGOs should take each department and find out that what are the rules and regulations which breed corruption and come up with the suggestion.

Mal-administration is root cause of every wrong in governance. There appearance to be no justification why even routine matters are not disposed of especially when, there is no consideration of any discrimination or any legal impediment involved.

Providing channels for ventilation of grievances is bound to have a very sobering effect on an erratic administration. It lies with the public, which should be prepared to put up a stiff fight against it. For every corrupt official, there are hundreds of members of the public wanting to make use of him and to feed him. A society that does not attach any stigma to the corrupt man can hardly be rid of such ignoble men.

Ombudsman throughout the world, by whatever name they are described, have established themselves as an effective instrument of public accountability. We can be proud of the part we and our predecessors have had in meeting that purpose and should endeavour to make this authority more meaningful and effective.

Effectiveness of Lokayukta is related to his primary objective: to ensure that the constitutional state is maintained, that public authorities respect citizens' rights and laws and that administrative problems are corrected (eliminate formalities, reduce delays, revise discretionary decision-making processes….). Consequently, this mission is divided in to two parts: monitoring and correcting, if necessary, public authorities' behaviour. This is why the Lokayuktas effectiveness, or his success in getting his recommendations implemented by public authorities, relies on his ability to make public authorities accept and understand his recommendations. His purpose is to resolve conflicts, which he must make public authorities aware of. This is why he ensures that public authorities are aware of his intervention criteria, the general scale according to which he evaluates the government's administrative behaviour. He makes his general intervention policies public, the population, public authorities and media are better able to understand the rationale for any possible recommendations that he could make in a case under his scrutiny, no matter the nature of the investigation.

Suggestions which would go long way in achieving the said goal.
1. Public awareness
2. Media /press play significant role in covering the cases of corruption and in mobilizing public opinion against such practices as also creates awareness for preventive measures.
3. Deterrent, effective and speedy punishment.
4. Re-organization of vigilance departments and to be attached with Lokayukta organization.
5. Empowering public through transparency in administration.
6. Accountability-speedy fixation of
7. Reducing political intervention in public administration
8. Mechanization of offices- Computerization and Automating of procedures to provide citizen related information as also eliminate opportunities of corruption.
9. Public officials- disclosures of assets, liabilities and income returns.
10. Mobilize public opinion and public involvement and NGOs may play a vital role.
11. Simplification of rules and Procedures.
12. Simplifying and classifying of administrative procedure in all matters in which citizens are directly involved.
13. Enacting and freedom of information law.
14. Identical powers and functioning of Lokayuktas in all states.

ISRO : FAQs

ISRO important information

What is the full form of ISRO ?
ISRO Stands for Indian Space Research Organisation
Who is considered as the "founding father" of Indian Space Programme?
Dr Vikram A Sarabhai is considered as the founding father of space programmes in India.
When was ISRO formed?
ISRO was formed on August 15, 1969.
When was Department of Space constituted?
Department of Space (DOS) and the Space Commission were set up in 1972. ISRO was brought under DOS on June1, 1972.

What is the main objective of ISRO?
The prime objective of ISRO is to develop space technology and its application to various national needs.
How these Objectives are met?
ISRO has established two major space systems, INSAT for communication, television broadcasting and meteorological services, and Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS) system for resources monitoring and management. ISRO has developed two satellite launch vehicles, PSLV and GSLV, to place INSAT and IRS satellites in the required orbits.
Where the Satellites are made?
Satellites are made at ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore.

Where the Rockets / Launch Vehicles are made?
Rockets / Launch Vehicles are made at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvanathapuram.
From where are the rockets launched?
ISRO's Launch facility is located at SDSC SHAR from where Launch Vehicles and Sounding Rockets are launched. Sounding rockets are also launched from TERLS at Thiruvananthapuram.
How can I order for Satellite data?
You can get data from National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Hyderabad. Visit the websitewww.nrsc.gov.in for more details.
Where the Space Programme began in India?
Indian Space Programme began at Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) located at Thumba near Thiruvanathapuram.

Why was Thumba selected for being the rocket launching station?
The geomagnetic equator of the earth passes over Thumba.
What is a sounding rocket?
A sounding rocket is a rocket, which is intended for assessing the physical parameters of the upper atmosphere.
What does the letter 'RH' and the numerals on an Indian sounding rocket signify?
RH stands for 'Rohini' sounding rocket and the numeral indicate the diameter of the rocket in mm.
When was the first rocket launched in India? Which was the rocket?
The first rocket, a Nike-Apache, procured from the US, was launched on November 21, 1963.

When did India begin developing its own rockets?
India’s first indigenous sounding rocket, RH-75, was launched on November 20, 1967.
What is the expansion of VSSC and when it was formed?
Space Science and Technology Centre (SSTC) was renamed as Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) in 1972 in honor of Dr Vikram Sarabahi who met with his untimely demise on December 30, 1971.
How many Centres are there in ISRO?
There are six major Centres and several other Units, Agencies, Facilities and Laboratories spread across the country.

Where are these Centres located?
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram; ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore; Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC – SHAR) at Sriharikota; Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) at Thiruvananthapuram, Bangalore and Mahendragiri, Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad and National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Hyderabad.
What is the major function of these Centres?
Launch Vehicles are build at VSSC, Thiruvananthapuram; Satellites are designed and developed at ISAC, Bangalore; Integration and launching of satellites and launch vehicles are carried out from SDSC, Shriharikota; Development of liquid stages including cryogenic stage is carried out at LPSC, Sensors for Communication and Remote Sensing satellites and application aspects of the space technology are taken up at SAC, Ahmedabad and Remote Sensing satellite data reception processing and dissemination by NRSC, Hyderabad.
Which is the first launch vehicle of India?
Satellite Launch Vehicle-3 (SLV-3) is the first launch vehicle of India.

When was it launched?
The first successful launch of SLV-3 took place on July 18, 1980 from SDSC SHAR.
What are the other launch vehicles developed by India?
Apart from SLV-3, India developed Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV), Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).
How satellites are broadly classified?
Satellites are broadly classified into two, viz., Communication satellites and Remote Sensing satellites.
What is a communication satellite?
A communication satellite usually operates from the Geosynchronous orbit catering to requirements in communication, television broadcasting, meteorology, disaster warning etc.

What is a Remote Sensing satellite?
A Remote Sensing satellite is intended for natural resource monitoring and management and operates from a Sun Synchronous Polar Orbit (SSPO).
What is NNRMS?
NNRMS is the acronym for National Natural Resources Management System. NNRMS is an integrated resources management system aimed at optimal utilisation of the natural resources of the country by proper and systematic inventory of resource availability using Remote Sensing data in conjunction with conventional techniques.
Which is the first Indian satellite?
Aryabhata is the first Indian satellite
From where was it launched?
It was launched from the former Soviet Union on April 19, 1975.

Which is the heaviest satellite launched by India from Indian soil?
INSAT-4CR weighing 2130 kg and launched by GSLV-F04 on September 2, 2007 is the heaviest satellite launched from India.
How many launches of launch vehicles were carried out so far?
38 launch vehicle missions were carried from India so far (till March 2013).
How many satellites have been launched by India?
68 + 35 (foreign) satellites were put into orbit so far (till March 2013).
Which is the first operational launch vehicle of India?
PSLV is the first operational launch vehicle of India. It had so far three developmental flights and nineteen operational flights - 21 continuously successful flights.

What is Chandrayaan-1?
Chandrayaan-1 is a scientific investigation – by spacecraft – of the Moon. The name Chandrayaan means “Chandra- Moon, Yaan-vehicle”, –in Indian languages (Sanskrit and Hindi) , – the lunar spacecraft. Chandrayaan-1 is the first Indian planetary science and exploration mission.
When, and from where, Chandrayaan-1 was launched?
Chandrayaan-1 was launched on October 22, 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota (SHAR), India.
How long Chandrayaan-1 was operational?
Chandrayaan-1 was operational for 312 days till August 28, 2009.

What are Chandrayaan's scientific goals?
The Chandrayaan-1 mission is aimed at high-resolution Remote Sensing of the Lunar surface in visible, near Infrared, low energy X-rays and high-energy X-ray regions. Specific scientific goals are:
 
To prepare a three-dimensional atlas (with a high spatial and altitude resolution of 5-10 m) of both near and far side of the moon.
To conduct chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface for distribution of mineral and chemical elements such as Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicon, Calcium, Iron and Titanium as well as high atomic number elements such as Radon, Uranium & Thorium with high spatial resolution.
By simultaneous photo geological and chemical mapping, we will be able to identify different geological units, which will test the hypothesis for the origin and early evolutionary history of the moon and help in determining the nature of the lunar crust.

What are the scientific instruments onboard Chandrayaan-1?
There are eleven scientific instruments onboard Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. Five of them are Indian and other six are from ESA (3), NASA (2) and Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1) selected through ISRO Announcement of Opportunity (AO). Two of the ESA instruments have Indian collaboration.
What is the temperature on the moon?
The moon undergoes extremes in temperature - the side of the Moon receiving sunlight becomes scorching hot at about 130 ºC, and freezing cold at -180 ºC during night.
Is there any Life on moon?
So far none of the lunar missions have detected any signature of presence of life on the Moon.
Why do we see only one side of the Moon?
As the Moon orbits, it always presents the same side towards the Earth. This is so because Earth's gravity has slowed the Moon's rotation so that it just matches the time it takes to go around the Earth. So the Moon takes the same amount of time to revolve around the Earth as it takes to rotate around its spin axis.

What is the total budget for realising Chandrayaan-1 mission?
The budgetary estimate for realising the proposed Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 stands at Rs. 386.00 crores (about $76 million). This includes Rs. 53.00 crores (about $11 million) for Payload development, Rs. 83.00 crores (about $17 million) for Spacecraft Bus, Rs. 100.00 crores ($20 million) towards establishment of Deep Space Network, Rs. 100.00 crores ($20 million) for PSLV launch vehicle and Rs. 50.00 crores ($10 million) for scientific data centre, external network support and programme management expenses.
What is Antrix?
Antrix is the commercial wing of ISRO, a single window agency for marketing Indian space capabilities both products and services to the world.

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