Source: This was stated by Shri Mullappally Ramachandran, Minister of State of Home Affairs in written reply to a question in the Lok Sabha Aug 2012.
There are reports that Indian Insurgent Groups (IIGs) have been using Myanmar territory for safe sanctuary. Manipur based Meiti insurgent groups like People's Liberation Army (PLA), United National Liberation Front (UNLF), People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK); Naga insurgent group like National Socialist Council of Nagaland/ Khaplang (NSCN/K) and United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) Anti-talk faction and National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) have their camps / hideouts in Myanmar Naga Hills (MNH).
The presence of IIGs in Myanmar has been the single most important security issue for India at every bilateral negotiations, i.e. National Level Meeting (NLM) at Home Secretary Level and Sectoral Level Meeting (SLM) at Joint Secretary Level held every year in pursuance of 1994 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between India and Myanmar. Myanmar has always been assuring India that they will not allow their soil to be used by IIGs to carry out activities inimical to India. IIGs continue to use Myanmar territory notwithstanding Myanmar's repeated assurances not to allow its territory for activities inimical to India.
In the recently held NLM between India and Myanmar at Nay Pyi Taw (Myanmar) in January, 2012 and SLM held at Kolkata in June 2012, the issue of continued presence of IIG groups in Myanmar was raised again and it has been assured by Myanmar to co-operate closely to address the Indian concerns.
As a result of regular National Level and Sectoral Level Meetings and follow-up of deliberations of NLM and SLM, Myanmar authorities have shown willingness to act against these militant groups and have started some operations against IIGs in Myanmar in recent times.
Assam has been the hotbed of militancy for a number of years due to its porous borders with Bangladesh and Bhutan. The main causes of the friction include the anti-foreigner agitation in the 1980s and the simmering Assam-Bodo tensions. The insurgency status in Assam is classified as very active.The government of Bangladesh has arrested and extradited senior leaders of ULFA.
ULFA: The United Liberation Front of Asom was formed in April 1979 to establish a sovereign state of Assam through an armed struggle. In recent times the organisation has lost out its middle rung leaders after most of them were arrested.
NDFB:The National Democratic Front of Bodoland was formed in 1989 as the Bodo Security Force, aims to set up an autonomous regionBodoland.
KLNLF:The Karbi Longri N.C. Hills Liberation Front is a militant group operating in Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao districts of Assam that was formed on May 16, 2004. The outfit claims to fight for the cause of Karbi tribes and its declared objective is Hemprek Kangthim, meaning self-rule/self-determination of the Karbi people. It is closely linked with the ULFA (United Liberation Front of Asom)
UPDS:The United People's Democratic Solidarity was formed in March 1999 with the merger of two terrorist outfits in Assam's Karbi Anglong district, the Karbi National Volunteers (KNV) and Karbi People's Front (KPF)
Insurgent groups in Manipur may be broadly classified into hill-based (mostly tribals) and valley based(mostly majority meiteis).While the former demand for tribal state to preserve their tribal cultures from outside influence,the latter based their demands for independence from historical perspective claiming that Manipur a princely state with its geographical area extending to as far as the Kabaw valley of modern Myanmar during the British colonialism,was never a part of India and continues to remain so.About 90% of the hill-based insurgents and a few of the valley-based insurgents have now entered what is called Suspension of Operation (SoO).
Peoples Liberation Army: The Peoples Liberation Army is a leftist organisation formed in 1978 with the aim of liberating Manipur from India.
UNLF:The United National Liberation Front was created in 1964 and demands an independent socialist state of Manipur.
PREPAK People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak is an armed insurgent group in Manipur demanding a separate and independent homeland.
Nagaland was created in 1963 as the 16th State of Indian Union, before which it was a district of Assam. Insurgent groups classified as active, mainly demand full independence. The Naga National Council led by Phizo was the first group to dissent in 1947 and in 1956 they went underground.
The National Socialist Council of Nagaland was formed in 1980 to establish a Greater Nagaland, encompassing parts of Manipur, Nagaland, the north Cachar hills (Assam). The NSCN split in 1988 to form two groups namely NSCN(IM) & NSCN(K). As of now, both the groups are in ceasefire with the Indian government.Though sovereignty and independence was their ideology initially, of late the Indo-Naga talks seem to centre around Greater Nagaland which itself is being vehemently opposed by the states of Assam,Manipur,Arunachal Pradesh etc. solely for the reason that it is nothing sort of encroachment on their territories which continues to forment suspicion and ill-will in the North-east India. However, they continue to be actively involved in illegal activities including extortion, kidnapping, inter-factional clashes, bootlegging and recruitment besides imposing various tax/duties to all types of commercial enterprises and establishments. In spite of the name, the Council's ideology is Maoist rather than Hitlerite.
The National Socialist Council of Nagaland—Khaplang is the second faction with the same aim of a Greater Nagaland and was formed in 1988.
The insurgent groups in Tripura were emerged in the end of the 1970s, as ethnic tensions between the Bengali immigrants and the tribal native population who were outnumbered by the former hailing from mainland India and nearby Bangladesh which resulted in their being reduced to minority status even threatening them economically,socially, culturally which thus resulted in a clarion call of safeguarding tribal rights and cultures.Such being the extent of desperation naturally resulted in hatred and suspicion and as such their status is classified as very active.
National Liberation Front of Tripura.The National Liberation Front of Tripura was formed in March 1989.
All Tripura Tiger Force
The All Tripura Tiger Force was formed by the local aboriginal tribals in 1990, who were gradually outnumbered both directly and indirectly even at the cost of being threatened for their survival economically and culturally not to speak of their being reduced to minority population-wise, with the sole aim of the expulsion of all Bengali speaking immigrants from mainland India and nearby Bangladesh.
Problems in Meghalaya arise from the divide between tribals and non tribal settlers, identity issues and growing corruption besides the fear of being reduced to minority by native tribals. The activity status is classified as active.
ANVC: The Achik National Volunteer Council was formed in 1995 with the intentions of forming an Achik Land in the Garo Hills. As of 2010, a Suspension of Operations Agreement (SoO) between the Government and ANVC has been in force since 23 July 2004.
HNLC:The Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council, formed in 1992, aims to free the state from the alleged Garo and non-tribal Indian domination.
Mizoram's tensions are largely due to the simmering Assamese domination and the neglect of the Mizo people. In 1986, the Mizo accord ended the main secessionist movement led by the Mizo National Front, bringing peace to the region. Insurgency status is classified as partially active, due to secessionist/autonomy demands by the Hmars, chakmas, Brus, Pawis, Lais and the Reangs.
Hmar People's Convention-Democratic - HPC(D)
The Hmar People's Convention-Democracy is an armed insurgency group formed in 1995 to create an independent Hmar State in North East India. It is the offspring of the Hmar People's Convention (HPC), which entered into agreement with the Government of Mizoram in 1994 resulting in the formation of Sinlung Hills Development Council (SHDC) in North Mizoram. Their recruited cadres are from the States where the Hmar people are spread - Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghaaya. The HPC(D) is demanding a separate administrative unit under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India.
BNLF:The Bru National Liberation Front was formed in 1997 to protect the rights and dignity of the Reangs. The BNLF have surrendered with 757 of their comrades to the Mizoram Government on 21 October 2006.