UPSC IAS Interview 2017-18


Integrity:  Discharge duties truthfully, honestly and transparently.

Accountability: Responsible for actions and outcomes.

Responsiveness: Being sensitive, prompt, fair and objective in dealings with stakeholders, fostering mutual trust.

Professionalism: To strive for improving performance and competence with a focus on achieving excellence.

Innovation: Encouraging new ideas, methods, processes and practices.

Collaboration: Working together with stakeholders and partners to achieve common goals.

Militants Groups of the North Eastern States

Source: This was stated by Shri Mullappally Ramachandran, Minister of State of Home Affairs in written reply to a question in the Lok Sabha Aug 2012. 

There are reports that Indian Insurgent Groups (IIGs) have been using Myanmar territory for safe sanctuary. Manipur based Meiti insurgent groups like People's Liberation Army (PLA), United National Liberation Front (UNLF), People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK); Naga insurgent group like National Socialist Council of Nagaland/ Khaplang (NSCN/K) and United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) Anti-talk faction and National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) have their camps / hideouts in Myanmar Naga Hills (MNH). 

The presence of IIGs in Myanmar has been the single most important security issue for India at every bilateral negotiations, i.e. National Level Meeting (NLM) at Home Secretary Level and Sectoral Level Meeting (SLM) at Joint Secretary Level held every year in pursuance of 1994 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between India and Myanmar. Myanmar has always been assuring India that they will not allow their soil to be used by IIGs to carry out activities inimical to India. IIGs continue to use Myanmar territory notwithstanding Myanmar's repeated assurances not to allow its territory for activities inimical to India. 

In the recently held NLM between India and Myanmar at Nay Pyi Taw (Myanmar) in January, 2012 and SLM held at Kolkata in June 2012, the issue of continued presence of IIG groups in Myanmar was raised again and it has been assured by Myanmar to co-operate closely to address the Indian concerns. 

As a result of regular National Level and Sectoral Level Meetings and follow-up of deliberations of NLM and SLM, Myanmar authorities have shown willingness to act against these militant groups and have started some operations against IIGs in Myanmar in recent times. 

(Source wikipedia)

Assam has been the hotbed of militancy for a number of years due to its porous borders with Bangladesh and Bhutan. The main causes of the friction include the anti-foreigner agitation in the 1980s and the simmering Assam-Bodo tensions. The insurgency status in Assam is classified as very active.The government of Bangladesh has arrested and extradited senior leaders of ULFA.
ULFA: The United Liberation Front of Asom was formed in April 1979 to establish a sovereign state of Assam through an armed struggle. In recent times the organisation has lost out its middle rung leaders after most of them were arrested.
NDFB:The National Democratic Front of Bodoland was formed in 1989 as the Bodo Security Force, aims to set up an autonomous regionBodoland.
KLNLF:The Karbi Longri N.C. Hills Liberation Front is a militant group operating in Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao districts of Assam that was formed on May 16, 2004. The outfit claims to fight for the cause of Karbi tribes and its declared objective is Hemprek Kangthim, meaning self-rule/self-determination of the Karbi people. It is closely linked with the ULFA (United Liberation Front of Asom)
UPDS:The United People's Democratic Solidarity was formed in March 1999 with the merger of two terrorist outfits in Assam's Karbi Anglong district, the Karbi National Volunteers (KNV) and Karbi People's Front (KPF)

Insurgent groups in Manipur may be broadly classified into hill-based (mostly tribals) and valley based(mostly majority meiteis).While the former demand for tribal state to preserve their tribal cultures from outside influence,the latter based their demands for independence from historical perspective claiming that Manipur a princely state with its geographical area extending to as far as the Kabaw valley of modern Myanmar during the British colonialism,was never a part of India and continues to remain so.About 90% of the hill-based insurgents and a few of the valley-based insurgents have now entered what is called Suspension of Operation (SoO).
Peoples Liberation Army: The Peoples Liberation Army is a leftist organisation formed in 1978 with the aim of liberating Manipur from India.
UNLF:The United National Liberation Front was created in 1964 and demands an independent socialist state of Manipur.
PREPAK People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak is an armed insurgent group in Manipur demanding a separate and independent homeland.
Nagaland was created in 1963 as the 16th State of Indian Union, before which it was a district of Assam. Insurgent groups classified as active, mainly demand full independence. The Naga National Council led by Phizo was the first group to dissent in 1947 and in 1956 they went underground.
The National Socialist Council of Nagaland was formed in 1980 to establish a Greater Nagaland, encompassing parts of Manipur, Nagaland, the north Cachar hills (Assam). The NSCN split in 1988 to form two groups namely NSCN(IM) & NSCN(K). As of now, both the groups are in ceasefire with the Indian government.Though sovereignty and independence was their ideology initially, of late the Indo-Naga talks seem to centre around Greater Nagaland which itself is being vehemently opposed by the states of Assam,Manipur,Arunachal Pradesh etc. solely for the reason that it is nothing sort of encroachment on their territories which continues to forment suspicion and ill-will in the North-east India. However, they continue to be actively involved in illegal activities including extortion, kidnapping, inter-factional clashes, bootlegging and recruitment besides imposing various tax/duties to all types of commercial enterprises and establishments. In spite of the name, the Council's ideology is Maoist rather than Hitlerite.
The National Socialist Council of Nagaland—Khaplang is the second faction with the same aim of a Greater Nagaland and was formed in 1988.
The insurgent groups in Tripura were emerged in the end of the 1970s, as ethnic tensions between the Bengali immigrants and the tribal native population who were outnumbered by the former hailing from mainland India and nearby Bangladesh which resulted in their being reduced to minority status even threatening them economically,socially, culturally which thus resulted in a clarion call of safeguarding tribal rights and cultures.Such being the extent of desperation naturally resulted in hatred and suspicion and as such their status is classified as very active.
National Liberation Front of Tripura.The National Liberation Front of Tripura was formed in March 1989.
All Tripura Tiger Force
The All Tripura Tiger Force was formed by the local aboriginal tribals in 1990, who were gradually outnumbered both directly and indirectly even at the cost of being threatened for their survival economically and culturally not to speak of their being reduced to minority population-wise, with the sole aim of the expulsion of all Bengali speaking immigrants from mainland India and nearby Bangladesh.
Problems in Meghalaya arise from the divide between tribals and non tribal settlers, identity issues and growing corruption besides the fear of being reduced to minority by native tribals. The activity status is classified as active.
ANVC: The Achik National Volunteer Council was formed in 1995 with the intentions of forming an Achik Land in the Garo Hills. As of 2010, a Suspension of Operations Agreement (SoO) between the Government and ANVC has been in force since 23 July 2004.
HNLC:The Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council, formed in 1992, aims to free the state from the alleged Garo and non-tribal Indian domination.
Mizoram's tensions are largely due to the simmering Assamese domination and the neglect of the Mizo people. In 1986, the Mizo accord ended the main secessionist movement led by the Mizo National Front, bringing peace to the region. Insurgency status is classified as partially active, due to secessionist/autonomy demands by the Hmars, chakmas, Brus, Pawis, Lais and the Reangs.
Hmar People's Convention-Democratic - HPC(D)
The Hmar People's Convention-Democracy is an armed insurgency group formed in 1995 to create an independent Hmar State in North East India. It is the offspring of the Hmar People's Convention (HPC), which entered into agreement with the Government of Mizoram in 1994 resulting in the formation of Sinlung Hills Development Council (SHDC) in North Mizoram. Their recruited cadres are from the States where the Hmar people are spread - Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghaaya. The HPC(D) is demanding a separate administrative unit under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India.
BNLF:The Bru National Liberation Front was formed in 1997 to protect the rights and dignity of the Reangs. The BNLF have surrendered with 757 of their comrades to the Mizoram Government on 21 October 2006.

National Policy on Electronics 2012

National Policy on Electronics 2012

The Union Cabinet today approved the National Policy on Electronics 2012. The draft National Policy on Electronics was released for public consultation and it has now been finalized based on comments from various stakeholders.

India is one of the fastest growing markets of electronics in the world. There is potential to develop the Electronic System and Design and Manufacturing (ESDM) sector to meet our domestic demand as well as to use the capabilities so created to successfully export ESDM products from the country. The National Policy on Electronics aims to address the issue with the explicit goal of transforming India into a premier ESDM hub.

The strategies include setting up of a National Electronics Mission with industry participation and renaming the Department of Information Technology as Department of Electronics and Information Technology (Deity). The Department has since been renamed on February 26, 2012.

The policy is expected to create an indigenous manufacturing eco-system for electronics in the country. It will foster the manufacturing of indigenously designed and manufactured chips creating a more cyber secure ecosystem in the country. It will enable India to tap the great economic potential that this knowledge sector offers. The increased development and manufacturing in the sector will lead to greater economic growth through more manufacturing and consequently greater employment in the sector.

The Policy envisages that a turnover of USD 400 billion will create an employment for two million people.

ESDM is of strategic importance as well. Not only in internal security and defence, the pervasive deployment of electronics in civilian domains such as telecom, power, railways, civil aviation, etc. can have serious consequences of disruption of service. This renders tremendous strategic importance to the sector. The country, therefore, cannot be totally dependent on imported electronic components and products.

The key objectives of the Policy are:

(i) To create an eco-system for a globally competitive Electronic System Design and Manufacturing (ESDM) sector in the country to achieve a turnover of about USD 400 billion by 2020 involving investment of about USD 100 billion and employment to around 28 million people at various levels.

(ii) To build on the emerging chip design and embedded software industry to achieve global leadership in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), chip design and other frontier technical areas and to achieve a turnover of USD 55 billion by 2020.

(iii) To build a strong supply chain of raw materials, parts and electronic components to raise the indigenous availability of these inputs from the present 20-25 per cent to over 60 per cent by 2020.

(iv) To increase the export in ESDM sector from USD 5.5 billion to USD 80 billion by 2020.

(v) To significantly enhance availability of skilled manpower in the ESDM sector. Special focus for augmenting postgraduate education and to produce about 2500 PhDs annually by 2020.

(vi) To create an institutional mechanism for developing and mandating standards and certification for electronic products and services to strengthen quality assessment infrastructure nationwide.

(vii) To develop an appropriate security ecosystem in ESDM.

(viii) To create long-term partnerships between ESDM and strategic and core infrastructure sectors - Defence, Atomic Energy, Space, Railways, Power, Telecommunications, etc.

(ix) To become a global leader in creating Intellectual Property (IP) in the ESDM sector by increasing fund flow for R&D, seed capital and venture capital for start-ups in the ESDM and nanoelectronics sectors.

(x) To develop core competencies in strategic and core infrastructure sectors like telecommunications, automotive, avionics, industrial, medical, solar, Information and Broadcasting, Railways, etc through use of ESDM in these sectors.

(xi) To use technology to develop electronic products catering to domestic needs, including rural needs and conditions, as well as international needs at affordable price points.

(xii) To become a global leader in the Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) segment by promoting progressive higher value addition in manufacturing and product development.

(xiii) To expedite adoption of best practices in e-waste management.

(xiv) To source, stockpile and promote indigenous exploration and mining of rare earth metals required for manufacture of electronic components.

To achieve these objectives, the policy proposes the following strategies:

(i) Creating eco-system for globally competitive ESDM sector: The strategies include provision of fiscal incentives for investment, setting up of electronic manufacturing clusters, preferential market access to domestically manufactured electronic products, setting up of semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities, industry friendly and stable tax regime. Based on Cabinet approval, a high level Empowered committee has been constituted to identify and shortlist technology and investors for setting up two semiconductor wafer manufacturing fabrication facilities. Based on another Cabinet approval a policy for providing preference to domestically manufactured electronic goods has been announced. Separate proposals have also been considered by the Cabinet for approval of Modified Special Incentive Package for the ESDM Sector and for setting up of Electronics Manufacturing Clusters (EMCs).

(ii) Promotion of Exports: The strategies include aggressive marketing of India as an investment destination and providing incentives for export,

(iii) Human Resource Development: The strategies include involvement of private sector, universities and institutions of learning for scaling up of requisite capacities at all levels for the projected manpower demand. A specialized Institute for semiconductor chip design is also proposed.

(iv) Developing and mandating standards to curb inflow of sub-standard and unsafe electronic products by mandating technical and safety standards which conform to international standards.

(v) Cyber security: To create a complete secure cyber eco-system in the country, through suitable design and development of indigenous appropriate products through frontier technology/product oriented research, testing and validation of security of products.

(vi) Strategic electronics: The strategies include creating long-term partnerships between domestic ESDM industry and strategic sectors for sourcing products domestically and providing Defense Offset obligations for electronic procurements through ESDM products.

(vii) Creating ecosystem for vibrant innovation and R&D in the ESDM sector including nanoelectronics. The strategy includes creation of an Electronic Development Fund.

(viii) Electronics in other sectors: The strategy includes supporting and : developing expertise in the electronics in the following sectors of economy: automotive, avionics, Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), Industrial, medical, solar photovoltaics, Information and Broadcasting, Telecommunications, Railways, Intelligent Transport Systems, and Games and Toys.

(ix) Handling e-waste: The strategy includes various initiatives to facilitate environment friendly e-waste handling policies.


The Electronics industry reported at USD 1.75 trillion is the largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry in the world. It is expected to reach USD 2.4 trillion by 2020. The demand in the Indian market was USD 45 billion in 2008-09 and is expected to reach USD 400 billion by 2020. Domestic demand is expected to be driven by growth in income levels leading to higher off-take of electronics products, automation demands of corporate sector and the government's focus on e-governance. The domestic production in 2008-09 was about USD 20 billion. However, the actual value-addition in the domestically produced electronic product is very low, ranging between 5 to 10 percent in most cases. At the current rate of growth, domestic production can cater to a demand of USD 100 billion in 2020 as against a demand of USD 400 billion and the rest would have to be met by imports. This aggregates to a demand supply gap of nearly USD 300 billion by 2020. Unless the situation is corrected, it is likely that by 2020, electronics import may far exceed oil imports. This fact goes unnoticed because electronics, as a "meta resource" forms a significant part of all machines and equipment imported, which are classified in their final sectoral forms, for example, automobiles, aviation, health equipment, media and broadcasting, defence armaments, etc.

Electronics is characterized by high velocity of technological change. Consequently the life cycle of products is declining. As a result, the value of design and development in the product has increased quite significantly. Given India's growing strength in chip design and embedded software, the increasing importance of design in product development has potential to make India a favoured destination for ESDM.

Electronic components, which are the basis of an electronic product, are low volume-low weight, cheap and easy to transport across the globe. Moreover, under the Information Technology Agreement-1 (ITA-1) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which came into force in 1997, a large number of electronic components and products are bound with zero tariffs making trade unrestricted across international borders. Under the Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) and Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) with various countries, the import of electronics hardware from these countries is allowed either at zero duty or at a duty which is lower than the normal duty rate. 

Highlights of the Report - Children in India 2012

Highlights of the Report
‘Children in India 2012 - A Statistical Appraisal’

• While an absolute increase of 181 million in the country’s  population has been 
recorded during the decade 2001-2011, there is a reduction of 5.05 millions in the 
population of children aged 0-6 years during this period. The decline in male 
children is 2.06 million and in female children is 2.99 millions. 

• The share of Children (0-6 years) in the total population has showed a decline of 2.8 
points in 2011, compared to Census 2001 and the decline was sharper for female 
children than male children in the age group 0-6 years. 

• The overall sex ratio of the Country is showing a trend of improvement, whereas the 
child sex ratio is showing a declining trend. During the period 1991 -2011, child sex 
ratio declined from 945 to 914, whereas the overall sex ratio showed an 
improvement from 927 to 940. 

• As per Census 2011, the State/ UTs with alarmingly low (<900 are="are" child="child" font="font" nbsp="nbsp" ratio="ratio" sex="sex">
Haryana (830), Punjab (846), Jammu & Kashmir (859), Delhi (866), Chandigarh 
(867), Rajasthan (883), Maharashtra (883), Uttrakhand (886), Gujarat (886), Uttar 
Pradesh (899). The State/ UTs which are having better (> =950) child sex ratio are 
Mizoram, (971), Meghalaya (970), A  &N Islands (966), Puducherry (965), 
Chattisgarh (964), Arunachal Pradesh (960), Kerala (959), Assam (957), Tripura 
(953), West Bengal (950). 

• Though, the child sex ratio in rural India is 919 which is 17 points higher than that 
of urban India, the decline in Child Sex Ratio (0-6 years) during 2001-2011 in rural 
areas is more than three times as compared to the drop in urban India. 

• Compared to 2001, the number of districts in the lowest category of child sex ratio 
(<= 850) has increased in rural areas whereas the number of districts in this category 
has declined in urban areas in 2011. 

• Compared to 2000-2005 period, where sex ratio dipped continuously (from 892 to 
880), the period 2005-10, has showed slight improvement (from 892 to 905). 

• Among the major States, as per SRS 2008-10, Sex Ratio at Birth is lowest in Punjab 
(832) followed by Haryana (848) and highest in Chattisgarh (985), followed by 
Kerala (966). 

• Comparing the results of 2002-04 and 2008-10, Sex ratio at birth declined in Tamil 
Nadu (decline of 19 points) and Orissa (decline of 6 points) whereas all the other 
bigger States showed improvement during this period. 2 

• The State/ UTs which have achieved 100% level of birth registration in 2007 are 
Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, 
Punjab,Tamil nadu, Chandigarh, Lakshadeep and Puducherry. 

• The Sample Registration System, in 2010,  estimated that, out of the total deaths 
reported, 14. 5% are infant deaths (< 1 years), 3.9% are deaths of 1-4 years children, 
18.4% are deaths of children of 0-4 years and 2.7% deaths pertained to children of 
5-14 years. 

• The percentage of infant deaths to total deaths varies substantially across the states. 
From moderate level of 2.8% in Kerala, 5.0% in Tamil Nadu to as high as 21.8% in 
Rajasthan , 21.2% in Uttar Pradesh, 20.4% in Madhya Pradesh with other states 
figuring in between these states. The percentage of under five deaths to total deaths 
ranges from 3.2% in Kerala 5.9% in Tamil Nadu to 27.6% in Uttar Pradesh, 26.6% 
in Rajasthan, 26.4%in Madhya Pradesh, 26.7% in Bihar while other states figure in 
between these states. 

• At the national level, the percentage share of infant deaths to total deaths in rural 
areas is 15.8%, whereas in urban areas, the same is 9.7%. 

• In 2010, the percentage of neo- natal deaths to total infant deaths is 69.3% at 
national level and varies from 61.9% in urban areas to 70.6% in rural areas. Among 
the bigger States, Jammu & Kashmir (82.1%) registered the highest percentage of 
neonatal deaths to infant deaths and the lowest is in Kerala (53.2%). 

• In 2010, the neonatal mortality rate (neo- natal deaths per thousand live births) at 
national level is at 33 and ranges from 19 in urban areas to 36 in rural areas. Among 
bigger states, neo-natal mortality rate is highest in Madhya Pradesh (44) and lowest 
in Kerala (7). 

• At the national level, the early neo –natal mortality rate for the year 2010 has been 
estimated at 25 and ranges from 28 in rural areas to 15 in urban areas. Among the 
bigger States, Kerala (5) and Madhya Pradesh (34) are at the two extremes. 

• The percentage of early neo – natal deaths to the total infant deaths during the year 
2010, at the national level has been 53.9 and it varies from 54.6 in rural areas to 
49.6 in urban areas. Among bigger States, the percentage of early neo natal deaths 
for total infant deaths varies from the lowest level of 38.7% in Kerala to the highest 
level of 69.4% in Jammu & Kashmir. 

• In 2010, IMR is reported to be 47 at the national level, and varies from 51 in rural 
areas to 31 in urban areas. 

• Infant mortality has declined for males from 78 in 1990 to 46 in 2010 and for 
females the decline was from 81 to 49 during this period. The per year decline in 
IMR was 1.6 points for both males and females and the percentage decline in female 3 
IMR is 39.5% and the percentage decline in male IMR is 41.02% during the last two 

• Female infants experienced a higher mortality rate than male infants in all major 

• Though the Urban and Rural gap in infant mortality has declined over the years, still 
it is very significant. IMR has declined in urban areas from 50 in 1990 to 31 in 
2010, whereas in rural areas IMR has declined from 86 to 51 during the same 

• SRS based U5MR in India for the year 2010, stands at 59 and it varies from 66 in 
rural areas to 38 in Urban areas. The under five mortality rate is higher for females 
than males as in 2010, U5MR stood at 64 for females whereas it is 55 for males. 

• As per Coverage Evaluation Survey, 2009,  at national level, 61% of the children 
aged 12-23 months have received full immunization. The coverage of immunization 
was higher in urban areas (67.4%) compared to that in the rural areas (58.5%). 

• In 2009, nearly 8% children of the children aged 12-23 months did not receive even 
a single vaccine. 

• Nearly 62% of the male children aged 12-23 months have received full 
immunization, while among the females it was nearly 60%. 

• While 67.4% of first birth order children are fortunate enough to receive full 
immunization, only 40.4% were so in the  category of birth order 4 and above are 
covered under full immunisation. 

• The full immunization coverage of children age 12- 23 months of mother’s 
education with 12 or more years is 76.6% whereas for mothers who had no 
education only 45.3% of children got full immunization. 

• About 75.5% of children of less than one year belonging to the highest wealth index 
group are fully immunized while only 47.3% from the lowest quintile are fully 

• The full immunization coverage of children age 12-23 months is highest in Goa 
(87.9%), followed by Sikkim (85.3%), Punjab (83.6%), and Kerala (81.5%). The 
full immunization coverage is lowest in Arunachal Pradesh (24.8%). 

• Evident from the 2008/09 HIV estimates (latest Sentinel surveillance rounds), in 
2009, the number of HIV infections has  decreased from 24.42 lakhs in 2008 to 
23.95 lakhs in 2009. However, the percent distribution of HIV infections for the age 
group 0- 15 years has increased from 4.20% in 2008 to 4.36% in 2009, indicating 
increased number of HIV infected children in 2009. 4 

• The prevalence of low birth weight babies (less than 2.5 kg at birth) is 22.5% as 
estimated by NFHS 3, but In NFHS 3 birth weight was reported only in 34.1% of 
cases of live births (60% of urban and 25% of rural). 

• As per NFHS 3, 48% of children under age five years are stunted (too short for their 
age) which indicates that, half of  the country’s children are chronically 
malnourished. Acute malnutrition, as evidenced by wasting, results in a child being 
too thin for his or her height. 19.8% of children under five years in the country are 
wasted which indicates that, one out of every five children in India is wasted. 43% 
of children under age five years are underweight for their age. 

• During the period between NFHS 2 (1998-99) & NFHS 3 (2005-06), decline has 
been observed for stunting and underweight among children under 3 years of age, 
whereas the percentage of children wasted has increased. 

• Higher is the percentage of underweight  female children (< 5 years) than male 
children, whereas females are in a slighlty better position compared to male children 
(< 5 years) while considering stunting and wasting. 

• The NFHS 3 (2005-06) results also indicates that malnutrition is more prevalent 
among children in the higher birth order category. 

• The rural India is witnessing more malnutrition among children < 5 years as higher 
percentage of stunted, wasted and underweight children were reported from rural 

• High malnutrition of all types prevails  in the group of illiterate mothers and 
mother’s with less than 5 year’s education. 

• Malnutrition among children is highest for underweight mothers. 

• The percentage of underweight children in the lowest wealth index category 
(56.6%) is nearly 3 times higher than that in the highest wealth index category 

• The States with more than 50 percent children under five years of age underweight 
are Madhya Pradesh (60%), Jharkhand (56.5%) and Bihar (55.9%). 

• District level Household Survey (DLHS -3 2007-08) shows only 40.5% children are 
fortunate to be breastfed within one hour of child birth. 

• Among male and female children (6-59 months) the percentage of children with any 
anaemia was reported as 69% and 69.9% respectively, severe anaemia was reported 
for 3.2 % male children and 2.7% female children. 

• Anaemia was more prevalent in Rural areas (71.5%), than Urban areas (63%). 5 

• For 81.9% severely anaemic mothers, their children were anaemic whereas 61.5 % 
mothers without anaemia reported anaemia among children. 

• Percentage of children with severe anaemia among severe anaemia mothers was 
nearly seven times higher than that among mothers not anaemic. 

• About 76.4% of children (6-59 months) in  the lowest wealth index are suffering 
from anaemia whereas 56.2% children of the highest wealth index are suffering 
from anaemia. 

• Anaemia prevalence among children of (6-59 months) is more than 70 percent in 
Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, 
Karnataka and Jharkhand. Anaemia prevalence among children of (6-59 months) is 
less than 50 percent in Goa, Manipur, Mizoram, and Kerala. For the remaining 
States, the anaemia prevalence is in the range of 50% - 70%. 

• As per Statistics of school education,  2009-10, there are 14.49  lakhs educational 
institutions in the Country. 

• About 89% teachers in the Higher Secondary Schools/ Junior Colleges were trained 
whereas the corresponding level in High /Post Basic Schools, Middle/ Sr.Basic 
School and Pre-Primary/Primary/ Jr.Basic School are 90%, 88% and 86% 

• Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) at primary level is high at 115%, and Net Enrolment 
Ratio (NER) has improved significantly from 84.5% in 2005- 06 to 98% in 2009-10. 
High GER at primary level, however, indicates the presence of over-age and under 
age children, possibly due to early and late enrolment  or repetition. During this 
period, Net enrolment ratio (NER) at Primary level has shown improvement in most 
of the State / UTs of the country. 

• GER at upper primary level is low, but had shown considerable improvement of 
16.8 percentage points in the four years between 2005 and 2009. NER at upper 
primary is a cause of concern. It varies from 35.76% in Sikkim to 90.51% in Tamil 
Nadu. Thus, although more children are entering the education system, many are not 
progressing through the system. Upper  primary NER at 58.3% gives a clear 
indication of the ground to be covered. 

• The share of girls in the total enrolment at primary and upper primary level was 
19% and 46.5% respectively in the year 2005-06; this increased to 48.5 and 48.1 at 
primary and upper primary levels respectively in 2009-10. 

• In general, at the national level, the number of girls enrolled in all levels, i.e. 
primary, secondary and higher education is less than their counterparts. However, 
the female-male ratio in education has been steadily improving over the years. In 
primary education, the GPI ratio has gone up from 0.76 in 1990-91 to 1.00 in 2009 -6 
10 showing 31.6% increase and in secondary education the increase is from 0.60 in 
1990-91 to 0.88 in 2009-10 thereby showing 46.7% increase. 

• The Census found an increase in the number of child labourers from 11.28 million 
in 1991 to 12.66 million in 2001. 

• The major occupations engaging child labour are Pan, Bidi & Cigarettes (21%), 
Construction (17%), Domestic workers (15%) and Spinning & weaving (11%). 

• As per census 2001, Uttar Pradesh (15.22%) recorded the highest share of child 
labour in the country, followed by Andra Pradesh (10.76%), Rajasthan (9.97%), 
Bihar (8.82%), Madhya Pradesh (8.41%), and West Bengal (6.77%). 

• There is considerable increase in the absolute number of child labour between 1991 
and 2001 in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Bihar, 
West Bengal, Haryana, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Nagaland, Assam, 
Meghalaya, and Delhi, whereas the States of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya 
Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa, Gujarat and Kerala have shown significant 
decline in the number of child labour. 

• Sikkim had the highest Work Participation Rate (WPR) in the country with 12.04 % 
child labourers among total children in the age group of 5-14 years, followed by 
Rajasthan 8.25 % and Himachal Pradesh  (8.14%) during 2001. The other states 
having higher than the national average of 5 percent WPR for children are Andhra 
Pradesh (7.7%), Chattisgarh (6.96%), Karnataka (6.91%), Madhya Pradesh (6.71%), 
J&K (6.62%), Arunachal Pradesh (6.06%), Jharkhand and Assam (5.07%). 

• As per the NFHS -3 (2005-06), nearly 11.8% children age 5-14 years works either 
for their own household or for somebody else. 

• The very young children (age 5-7 years),  both boys and girls, are mainly doing 
unpaid work for someone who is not a member of their household. The older boys 
age 12-14 are mainly engaged in paid work or family work, whereas girls in this age 
group are involved mainly in household chores or family work. 

• Notably, at all ages, girls are more likely than boys to be doing chores and boys are 
more likely than girls to be working for someone who is not a member of the 
household or doing other family work. 

• Rural children age 5-14 years (12.9%) are more likely to be engaged in work than 
their urban counterparts (8.6%). 

• The percentage of children  engaged in work activities decreases steadily with 
mother’s increasing education, father’s increasing education, and increasing wealth 
quintile. One in every 7 children in the  lowest and second lowest wealth index 
category is working. 7 

• It is alarming that, in 2011, the Crimes against children reported a 24% increase 
from the previous year with a total of  33,098 cases of crimes against Children 
reported in the country during 2011 as compared to 26,694 cases during 2010. 

• The State of Uttar Pradesh accounted for 16.6% of total crimes against children at 
national level in 2011, followed by Madhya Pradesh (13.2%), Delhi (12.8%), 
Maharashtra (10.2%), Bihar (6.7%) and Andra Pradesh (6.7%). 

• In 2011, among the IPC crimes, an increase of 43% was registered in Kidnapping 
and Abduction, while rape cases were increased by 30%, Procuration of minor girls 
recorded an increase of 27% and Foeticide reported an increase of 19% over 2010. 
In 2011, Buying of girls for Prostitution showed a decline of 65%, and selling of 
girls for Prostitution reported decline of 13% compared to 2010. Infanticide showed 
a decline of 37 points during this period. 

• The States of Uttar Pradesh and Delhi together accounted for 47.6% kidnapping and 
abduction of children reported in the Country. 

• The States of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra together accounted 
for 44.5% of the child rape cases reported in the Country in 2011. 

• A total of 132 cases of foeticide were reported in 2011, of which the highest number 
registered from Madhya Pradesh, followed by Chattisgarh and Punjab and these 
States together reported 56% of the total Foeticide registered in 2011 in the 

• An increase of 27% is observed in the Crime of Procuration of Minor Girls, ie.862 
cases in 2011 compared to 679 cases in 2010. West Bengal has reported 298 such 
cases, indicating a share of 34.6% at national level followed by Bihar (183), Assam 
(142) and Andra Pradesh (106). 

• Maharashtra accounted for 74% of the total 27 cases of ‘buying of girls for 
prostitution’ and West Bengal has accounted for 77% of the total 113 cases of 
‘selling of girls for prostitution’. 

• A total of 113 cases under prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006 were reported in 
the country out of which highest were reported in West Bengal (25), followed by 
Maharashtra(19), Andhra Pradesh(15), Gujarat(13) and Karnataka(12). 

• Considering all the Crimes against children, the Crime rate  (ratio of number of 
crimes to population) has marginally increased from 2.3 in 2009 to 2.7 in 2011. The 
rate was highest in Delhi (25.4) followed by A & N Islands (20.3), Chandigarh (7) 
and Chattisgarh (7), Madhya Pradesh (6) and Goa (5.1). 

• The average charge sheeting rate for all the Crimes against children was 82.5% in 
2011, which was the same in 2010 as well. The highest charge sheet rate was 
observed in cases under ‘Buying of girls for prostitution’ (100%) followed by 8 
‘Rape’ (97.3%) in comparison to the prevailing national level charge sheeting rate 
of 78.8% for the IPC Crimes and 93% for SLL Crimes. The lowest charge sheet rate 
was found in cases of ‘Foeticide’. 

• The Conviction rate at national level for the crimes  committed against children 
stood at 34.6%. The conviction rate for ‘infanticide (other than murder)’ was highest 
at 46.9% followed by cases under ‘murder’ (45.5%). 

• During 2006-2011, the trend in human trafficking cases reported under the heads of 
‘Procuration of Minor Girls, Importation of  girls, Selling of girls for prostitution, 
Buying of girls for prostitution Immoral Traffic (Prev.)Act’, shows an overall 
declining trend, with year to year variation. From nearly 5000 cases in 2006, it 
declined over the years, touching the lowest in 2009 (2848 cases) increased to 3422 
cases in 2010, and 3517 cases in 2011. 

• In 2011, 69% of cases of human trafficking are cases booked under Immoral Traffic 
(Prevention) Act 1956, though there is a decline of 2.6% in 2011 compared to 2010. 
Andra Pradesh accounted for 20.4% and Tamil nadu accounted for 17.2% cases of 
cases under this category, in 2011. 

• An increase of 122.2% has been observed in cases of ‘importation of girls’ during 
2010-11, and 56% of these cases reported in 2011 are from Madhya Pradesh. 

• The increasing trend in incidence of Juvenile Crimes (under  IPC) is a matter of 
grave concern, though the percentage of juvenile crimes to total crimes is around 
1% during 2001 to 2011. 

• The increasing trend in incidence of Juvenile Crimes (under  IPC) is a matter of 
grave concern, though the percentage of juvenile crimes to total crimes is around 
1% during 2001 to 2011. 

• The juvenile IPC crimes in 2011 have increased by 10.5% over 2010 as 22,740 IPC 
crimes by juveniles were registered during 2010 which increased to 25,125 cases in 
2011. Major Juvenile crimes were under ‘Theft’ (21.17%), Hurt (16.3%) and 
Burglary (10.38%) in 2011. 

• The highest decrease in Juvenile delinquency was observed under the crime head 
'Preparation & Assembly for Dacoity' (35.3%),'Death due to negligence' (25.6%)and 
'Criminal breach of trust' (14.0%) in 2011 over 2010. The highest increase in the 
incidence of juvenile crimes was observed under the heads 'Counterfeiting' 
(81.8%),'Dowry deaths' (63.2%), 'Arson' (57.6%) and 'Kidnapping & abduction of 
women & girls'(53.5%). 

• Juvenile delinquency under SLL crimes  has increased by 10.9% in 2011 as 
compared to 2010 as 2,558 cases of juvenile delinquency under SLL were reported 
in 2010 which increased to 2,837 in 2011, while there was substantial decrease of 
40.8% in 2010 as compared to 2009. 9 

• A large number of Juvenile crimes  (SLL) were reported under Gambling Act 
(14.77%) followed by Prohibition Act (10.7%). Cases under 'Indian Passport Act' 
and 'Forest Act' have registered a sharp decline of 66.7% each, while cases under 
‘Prohibition of Child Marriage Act’ and 'Immoral Traffic (P) Act' registered sharp 
increase of 200% and 50% respectively. 

• The States of Madhya Pradesh (19.9%)), Maharashtra (19%), Chhattisgarh (8.7%), 
Andhra Pradesh (7.3%), Rajasthan (7.3%) and Gujarat (6.4%) have reported high 
incidence of juvenile crimes under IPC. 

• Out of the total 888 juvenile murder cases reported in the Country in 2011, 
Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh reported 16.3% and 12.6% cases. The highest 
incidence of the juvenile rape cases in the country was reported from Madhya 
Pradesh (23.6%) followed by Uttar Pradesh (12.7%) and Maharashtra (10.9%) in 
the country. The highest incidence of the juvenile theft in the country was reported 
from Maharashtra (23.6%). 

• The highest number of juvenile delinquency cases under Special and Local Laws 
was reported from Tamil Nadu (23.7%) of total juvenile crimes under SLL followed 
by Chhattisgarh (18.1%), Gujarat (16.4%), Maharashtra (10.4%) and Madhya 
Pradesh (9.7%). 

• A total of 33,887 juveniles were apprehended during 2011 out of which 31,909 were 
boys and 1,978 were girls. 

• The percentage of girls to total juveniles was 5.84% whereas the percentage share 
relating to 2010 was 5.1%. 

• Out of total 33,887 Juveniles arrested, 30,766 (90.7%)  were arrested under IPC 
crimes while 3,121 (9.3%) were arrested for committing SLL crimes. 

• The percentage shares of Juveniles apprehended under the age groups 7-12 years, 
12-16 years, 16-18 years are 3.3%, 32.5% and 63.9% respectively. 

• An increase has been observed in number of juveniles  apprehended in all the age 
groups in 2011 over 2010, and the highest  percentage increase was for 7-12 age 
group (30.6%) whereas the rise in crimes in 12-16 years and 16-18 years were 8.9% 
and 12.5% respectively. 

• Maharashtra has reported the highest number of juveniles arrested (20.9%) under 
IPC crimes followed by Madhya Pradesh  (17.9%), Rajasthan (7.9%), Andhra 
Pradesh (7.9%), Chhatisgarh (7.1%), and Gujarat (6.4 %). 

• In 2011, the states of Madhya Pradesh (406) and Maharashtra (353) reported the 
highest number of girl offenders under IPC which constituted 49.54% of the total 
girl juveniles apprehended. 10 

• In 2011, the states of Chattisgarh (178) and Gujarat (121)  reported the highest 
number of girl offenders under SLL which  constituted 67.04% of the total girl 
juveniles apprehended. 

• Out of the total juveniles involved in various crimes, 81.4% are children living with 
parents, whereas the share of homeless children involved in various crimes are 5.7% 
and the remaining are children living with guardians. 

• Out of the total juveniles involved in various crimes 18.1% are illiterate and 37.8% 
had education up to primary level. 31 % juveniles belonged to the education level of 
above primary but below secondary category and 13.11% are with secondary/ 
higher secondary & above education. 

• About 57% of juveniles belonged to the poor families whose annual income is up to 
Rs. 25,000/. The share of juveniles from families with income between 25,000/- and 
50,000/- is 27%. The share of juveniles hailing from middle income group (50,000 - 
2,00,000) is 11%. 

* Full Report is available on  the website of Ministry of statistics and Programme 
Implementation, Government of India.  

Judiciary : Articles on very important topics

Articles Section


Article Heading


Canons of Judicial Ethics
Hon'ble Mr. Justice RC Lahoti,
Former Chief Justice of India
High Court Inauguration
on March 19th, 1955
The Sunday Tribune
Dated March 20th, 1955
From Crime to Punishment - A Road to Nowhere
Hon'ble Mr. Justice K.S. Garewal
High Court Architectural Design
Editorial committee of Punjab and Haryana High Court
My memories of Punjab and Haryana High Court
Hon'ble Mr. Justice Ashok Bhan, Judge Supreme Court of India
Service is Divine
Hon'ble Mr. Justice M.M.Punchhi Former Chief Justice of India
Encouragement and Support
Hon'ble Mr. Justice A.S.Anand Former Chief Justice of India
A Golden Era
Hon'ble Mr. Justice  V.Ramaswamy Former Chief Justice of Punjab & Haryana High Court
Idealism - A Supreme Necessity
Hon'ble Mr. Justice M. Rama Jois Former Chief Justice of Punjab and Haryana High Court.
I have virtually grown with the Court
Hon'ble Mr. Justice J.L.Gupta Former Chief Justice of Kerala High Court.
Reflections on a Golden Jubilee.
Hon'ble Mr. Justice K.S.Garewal
Delayed Justice
Hon'ble Mr. Justice Y.K.Sabharwal, Chief Justice of India
Address on the occasion of National Legal Literacy Day on 9th November, 2006 
Hon'ble Mr. Justice Y.K.Sabharwal, Chief Justice of India
My Dream of An Ideal Justice Dispensation System" 
Hon'ble Mr. Justice Y.K.Sabharwal, Chief Justice of India
12th Justice Sunanda Bhandare Memorial Lecture, New Delhi
Role of Judiciary in Good Governance
Hon'ble Mr. Justice Y.K.Sabharwal, Chief Justice of India
Criminal Justice under Stress: Transnational perspective'
Hon'ble Mr. Justice Y.K.Sabharwal, Chief Justice of India
Hon'ble Mr. Justice Y.K.Sabharwal, Chief Justice of India
Hon'ble Mr. Justice  K.G. Balakrishnan, Chief Justice of India
Hon'ble Mr. Justice  M.M. Kumar, Judge of Punjab and Haryana High Court
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